High Energy Physics  Theory
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 [1] arXiv:2406.12958 [pdf, html, other]

Title: Unimodular Quadratic Gravity and the Cosmological ConstantComments: 6 pagesSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astroph.CO); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc)
Unimodular gravity addresses the old cosmological constant (CC) problem, explaining why such constant is not at least as large as the largest particle mass scale, but classically it is indistinguishable from ordinary gravity. Conversely, quantum physics may give us a way to distinguish the two theories. Thus, here the unimodular constraint is imposed on a nonperturbative and backgroundindependent quantum version of quadratic gravity, which was recently formulated. It is shown that unimodularity does lead to different predictions for some inflationary quantum observables. Unimodular gravity per se does not solves the new CC problem (why the CC has the observed value?) even in this realization. To address this issue a multiverse made by different eras in a single big bang is considered and the observed scale of dark energy is explained anthropically.
 [2] arXiv:2406.12959 [pdf, html, other]

Title: Where is treelevel string theory?Comments: 44+6 pages, 23 figuresSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
We investigate the space of consistent treelevel extensions of the maximal supergravities in ten dimensions. We parametrize theory space by the first few EFT coefficients and by the onshell coupling of the lightest massive state, and impose on these data the constraints that follow from $2 \to 2$ supergraviton scattering. While Type II string theory lives strictly inside the allowed region, we uncover a novel extremal solution of the bootstrap problem, which appears to contain a single linear Regge trajectory, with the same slope as string theory. We repeat a similar analysis for supergluon scattering, where we find instead a continuous family of extremal solutionswith a single Regge trajectory of varying slope.
 [3] arXiv:2406.12974 [pdf, html, other]

Title: Bounding irrelevant operators in the 3d GrossNeveuYukawa CFTsComments: 13 pages, 4 figuresSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); Statistical Mechanics (condmat.statmech); Strongly Correlated Electrons (condmat.strel); High Energy Physics  Lattice (heplat)
We perform a numerical bootstrap study of scalar operators in the critical 3d GrossNeveuYukawa models, a family of conformal field theories containing N Majorana fermions in the fundamental representation of an O(N) global symmetry. We compute rigorous bounds on the scaling dimensions of the nexttolowest parityeven and parityodd singlet scalars at N = 2, 4, and 8. All of these dimensions have lower bounds greater than 3, implying that there are only two relevant singlet scalars and placing constraints on the RG flow structure of these theories.
 [4] arXiv:2406.12987 [pdf, html, other]

Title: Derivative fourfermion model, effective action and bumblebee generationComments: 12 pagesSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
In this paper, we study the oneloop effective potential of a derivative fourfermion model. As a result, an exact bumblebeelike potential is radiatively generated. Afterwards, we generalize our study for a finite temperature case and explicitly demonstrate the possibility of phase transitions allowing for the restoration of the Lorentz symmetry. We also investigate the lowenergy effective action, from which we obtain the usual kinetic term and the corresponding bumblebee potential.
 [5] arXiv:2406.12990 [pdf, other]

Title: Universal EarlyTime Growth in Quantum Circuit ComplexityComments: 32 pagesSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); Quantum Physics (quantph)
We show that quantum circuit complexity for the unitary time evolution operator of any timeindependent Hamiltonian is linear in time at early times, independent of any choices of the fundamental gates or cost metric. Deviations from linear earlytime growth arise from the commutation algebra of the gates and are manifestly negative for any circuit, decreasing the linear growth rate and leading to a bound on the growth rate of complexity of a circuit at early times. We illustrate this general result by applying it to qubit and harmonic oscillator systems, including the coupled and anharmonic oscillator. By discretizing free and interacting scalar field theories on a lattice, we are also able to extract the earlytime behavior and dependence on the lattice spacing of complexity of these field theories in the continuum limit, demonstrating how this approach applies to systems that have been previously difficult to study using existing techniques for quantum circuit complexity.
 [6] arXiv:2406.13287 [pdf, html, other]

Title: Unitarity Method for Holographic DefectsComments: 9 pages, 2 figuresSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
We initiate the study of looplevel holographic correlators in the presence of defects. We present a unitarity method which constructs loop corrections from lower order data. As an example, we apply this method to 6d $\mathcal{N}=(2,0)$ theories with $\frac{1}{2}$BPS surface defects and report the first holographic twopoint function at one loop.
 [7] arXiv:2406.13314 [pdf, html, other]

Title: Wilson linebased action for gluodynamics at the loop levelComments: 45 pages, 15 figuresSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
We develop quantum corrections to the Wilson linebased action which we recently derived through a transformation that eliminates triple gluon vertices from the YangMills action on the lightcone. The action efficiently computes high multiplicity treelevel splithelicity amplitudes with the number of diagrams following the Delannoy number series. However, the absence of the triple gluon vertices results in missing loop contributions. To remedy this, we develop two equivalent approaches using the oneloop effective action method to systematically incorporate loop contributions to our action. In one approach there are solely YangMills vertices in the loop whereas the other uses the interaction vertices of our action along with the kernels of the solution of our transformation in the loop. In addition to demonstrating the equivalence of both approaches, we validated the quantum completeness of the former by computing all 4point oneloop amplitudes which could not be previously computed. Both of our approaches are easily extendable to develop quantum corrections to other reformulations of the YangMills theory obtained via nonlinear classical field transformations eliminating interaction vertices.
 [8] arXiv:2406.13364 [pdf, html, other]

Title: Operator algebra, quantum entanglement, and emergent geometry from matrix degrees of freedomComments: 39 pagesSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
For matrix model and QFT, we discuss how dual gravitational geometry emerges from matrix degrees of freedom (specifically, adjoint scalars in super YangMills theory) and how operator algebra that describes an arbitrary region of the bulk geometry can be constructed. We pay attention to the subtle difference between the notions of wave packets that describe lowenergy excitations: QFT wave packet associated with the spatial dimensions of QFT, matrix wave packet associated with the emergent dimensions from matrix degrees of freedom, and bulk wave packet which is a combination of QFT and matrix wave packets. In QFT, there is an intriguing interplay between QFT wave packet and matrix wave packet that connects quantum entanglement and emergent geometry. We propose that the bulk wave packet is the physical object in QFT that describes the emergent geometry from entanglement. This proposal sets a unified view on two seemingly different mechanisms of holographic emergent geometry: one based on matrix eigenvalues and the other based on quantum entanglement. Further intuition comes from the similarity to a traversable wormhole discussed as the dual description of the coupled SYK model by Maldacena and Qi: the bulk can be seen as an eternal traversable wormhole connecting boundary regions.
 [9] arXiv:2406.13461 [pdf, html, other]

Title: Static neutral black holes in KalbRamond gravityComments: 22 pages, 2 figures, 1 table, JHEP3.clsSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc)
The KalbRamond (KR) gravity theory, a modified gravity theory that nonminimally couples a KR field with a nonzero vacuum expectation value for the gravitational field, can spontaneously break the Lorentz symmetry of gravity. In a recent work, Yang et al. [Phys. Rev. D 108, 124004 (2023)] successfully derived Schwarzschildlike black hole solutions both with and without a nonzero cosmological constant within the framework of KR gravity. However, their analysis did not address the more general case of static, neutral, spherically symmetric black holes. In this paper, we fill this gap by resolving the field equations to construct more general static, neutral, spherically symmetric black hole solutions both with and without a nonzero cosmological constant. Our black hole solutions are shown to obey the first law and the BekensteinSmarr mass formulas of black hole thermodynamics. Moreover, we demonstrate that our static neutral spherically symmetric AdS black hole does not always satisfy the reverse isoperimetric inequality (RII), as the isoperimetric ratio can be larger or smaller than unity depending on the placement of the solution parameters within the parameter space. This behavior contrasts with the abovementioned Schwarzschildlike AdS black hole in the KR gravity theory, which always obeys the RII. Significantly, the present more general static, neutral, spherically symmetric AdS black hole is the first example of a static AdS black hole that can violate the RII.
 [10] arXiv:2406.13571 [pdf, html, other]

Title: Bootstrap of the defect 1/2 BPS Wilson lines in N=4 ChernSimonsmatter theoriesComments: 36 pagesSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
We compute correlation functions of local operator insertions on the 1/2 BPS Wilson lines of N=4 ChernSimonsmatter theories in 3 dimensions. We study the algebra preserved by the defect CFT supported on the line, identify the superdisplacement multiplet and discuss some of its weakcoupling realizations. By employing a superspace description, we present the 4point functions of the superdisplacement and show how they are determined by functions of crossratios. Within an analytic bootstrap approach, we derive these functions at leading and nexttoleading order at strong coupling, obtaining a result in agreement with appropriate orbifolds of the ABJM case considered in arXiv:2004.07849.
 [11] arXiv:2406.13574 [pdf, other]

Title: Scalar sector of the Myers and Pospelov model: thermal and size effectsComments: 17 pagesSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
The scalar sector of the Myers and Pospelov model is considered. This theory introduces a dimension 5 operator with a preferred fourvector which breaks Lorentz symmetry. We investigate various applications using the TFD formalism, a topological field theory that allows the study of thermal and size effects on an equal footing. In this context, Lorentzviolating corrections to the Casimir effect and StefanBoltzmann law have been calculated.
 [12] arXiv:2406.13575 [pdf, html, other]

Title: Renormalization group flows and emergent symmetriesComments: 10 pages, 6 figuresSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
We discuss the following proposition: Renormalization Group flow of quantum theory with a biased symmetry exhibits a fixed hypersurface at which the symmetry is exact. Such emergent symmetries may have important phenomenological implications, including supersymmetric models, gauge theories, and massive gravity. Most interesting example is an emergent supersymmetry in nonabelian gauge theories with appropriate field content, in the IR limit i.e. strong coupling regime.
 [13] arXiv:2406.13594 [pdf, html, other]

Title: Supergeometric Quantum Effective ActionComments: 45 pages, no figuresSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); High Energy Physics  Phenomenology (hepph)
Supergeometric Quantum Field Theories (SGQFTs) are theories that go beyond the standard supersymmetric framework, since they allow for general scalarfermion field transformations on the configuration space of a supermanifold, without requiring an equality between bosonic and fermionic degrees of freedom. After revisiting previous considerations, we extend them by calculating the oneloop effective action of minimal SGQFTs that feature nonzero fermionic curvature in two and four spacetime dimensions. By employing an intuitive approach to the SchwingerDeWitt heatkernel technique and a novel fieldspace generalised Clifford algebra, we derive the ultraviolet structure of all effectivefieldtheory (EFT) operators up to four spacetime derivatives that emerge at the oneloop order. Upon minimising the impact of potential ambiguities due to the socalled multiplicative anomalies, we find that the EFT interactions resulting from the oneloop supergeometric effective action are manifestly diffeomorphically invariant in configuration space. The extension of our approach to evaluating higherloops of the supergeometric quantum effective action is described. The emerging landscape of theoretical and phenomenological directions for further research of SGQFTs is discussed.
 [14] arXiv:2406.13624 [pdf, other]

Title: Generalized $ \widetilde{W} $ algebrasComments: 47 pages, 2 figuresSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); Mathematical Physics (mathph)
Recently, a new generalized family of infinitedimensional $ \widetilde{W} $ algebras, each associated with a particular element of a commutative subalgebra of the $ W_{1+\infty} $ algebra, was described. This paper provides a comprehensive account of the aforementioned association, accompanied by the requisite proofs and illustrative examples. This approach allows a derivation of Ward identities for selected WLZZ matrix models and the expansion of corresponding $ W $operators in terms of an infinite set of variables $ p_k $.
 [15] arXiv:2406.13643 [pdf, html, other]

Title: Geometry of Classical NambuGoldstone FieldsComments: 20 pagesSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); Strongly Correlated Electrons (condmat.strel); High Energy Physics  Phenomenology (hepph)
A coordinatefree formulation of first order effective field theory, in which NambuGoldstone fields are described as sections on associated bundle, is presented. This construction, which is based only on symmetry considerations, allows for a direct derivation of number and types of NambuGoldstone fields in a classical field theory without any reference to effective Lagrangian. A central role in classification is shown to be played by Lorentzsymmetry breaking order parameter which induces symplectic structure in the field space of the theory.
 [16] arXiv:2406.13671 [pdf, html, other]

Title: Topological Equivalence Theorem and DoubleCopy for ChernSimons Scattering AmplitudesComments: 8+5 pages, to match Journal Version. This Letter paper is a companion of the systematic longer paper arXiv:2110.05399 (46pp)Journalref: Research 6 (2023) 0072Subjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); Strongly Correlated Electrons (condmat.strel); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc)
We study the mechanism of topological massgeneration for 3d ChernSimons gauge theories and propose a brandnew Topological Equivalence Theorem to connect scattering amplitudes of the physical gauge boson states to that of the transverse states under high energy expansion. We prove a general energy cancellation mechanism for $N$point physical gauge boson amplitudes, which predicts large cancellations of $E^{4L}\to E^{(4L) N}$ at any $L$loop level ($L\geqslant 0$). We extend the doublecopy approach to construct massive graviton amplitudes and study their structures. We newly uncover a series of strikingly large energy cancellations $E^{12}\to E^1$ of the treelevel fourgraviton scattering amplitude under high energy expansion and establish a new correspondence between the two energy cancellations in the topologically massive YangMills gauge theory and the topologically massive gravity theory. We further study the scattering amplitudes of ChernSimons gauge bosons and gravitons in the nonrelativistic limit.
 [17] arXiv:2406.13737 [pdf, html, other]

Title: The Born regime of gravitational amplitudesComments: 35 pages + appendices, 6 figuresSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc); High Energy Physics  Phenomenology (hepph)
We study the $2 \to 2$ scattering in the regime where the wavelength of the scattered objects is comparable to their distance but is much larger than any Compton wavelength in the quantum field theory. We observe that in this regime  which differs from the eikonal  the Feynman diagram expansion takes the form of a geometric series, akin to the Born series of quantum mechanics. Conversely, we can define the Feynman diagram expansion as the Born series of a relativistic effectiveonebody (EOB) Schrödinger equation. For a gravitational theory in this regime we observe that the EOB Schrödinger equation reduces to the ReggeWheeler or Teukolsky wave equations. We make use of this understanding to study the treelevel Compton scattering off a Kerr black hole. We compute the scalar and photon Compton amplitude up to $O(a^{30})$ in the black hole spin $a$ and propose an allorder expression. Remarkably, we find that boundary terms, which are typically neglected, give nonzero contact pieces necessary for restoring crossing symmetry and gauge invariance of the KerrCompton amplitude.
 [18] arXiv:2406.13738 [pdf, other]

Title: Abelian Instantons and Monopole ScatteringComments: 43 pages main text, 12 pages appendix, 4 figuresSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); High Energy Physics  Phenomenology (hepph)
It is usually assumed that $4D$ instantons can only arise in nonAbelian theories. In this paper we reexamine this conventional wisdom by explicitly constructing instantons in an Abelian gauge theory: ${\rm QED}_4$ with $N_f$ flavors of Dirac fermions, in the background of a Dirac monopole. This is the lowenergy effective field theory for fermions interacting with a 't HooftPolyakov monopole, in the limit where the monopole is infinitely heavy (hence pointlike) and static. This theory, whose nontopological sectors were studied by Rubakov and Callan, has a far richer structure than previously explored. We show how to calculate the topological instanton number, demonstrate the existence of 't Hooft zero modes localized around such instantons, and show how instantons in the path integral provide the underlying mechanism for the CallanRubakov process: monopolecatalyzed baryon decay with a cross section that saturates the unitarity bound. Our computation relies on correctly identifying the relevant $2D$ EFT for monopole catalysis as Axial ${\rm QED}_2$ in an effective $AdS_2$ metric.
 [19] arXiv:2406.13739 [pdf, html, other]

Title: A correspondence between the quantum K theory and quantum cohomology of GrassmanniansComments: 36 pagesSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
We utilize physics arguments, and the nonabelian/abelian correspondence, to relate the Givental and Lee's quantum K theory ring of Grassmannians to a twisted variant of the quantum cohomology ring. Furthermore, the quantum K pairing is related to correlators arising from supersymmetric localization. We state some mathematical conjectures, which we illustrate in several examples.
 [20] arXiv:2406.13741 [pdf, html, other]

Title: Integrable Conformal Defects in N=4 SYMSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
In this paper we classify integrable conformal defects in N=4 SYM theory for which the scalar fields pick up a nontrivial vacuum expectation value. Defects of this form correspond to Dirichlet boundary conditions that have a pole at the defect. These setups typically appear on the field theory side of probe brane setups in the AdS/CFT correspondence. We show that such defects, for any codimension, are related to fuzzy spheres. We discuss the properties of the different possible fuzzy spheres that can appear and present the corresponding Matrix Product States. We furthermore setup the quantum field theoretic framework by computing the mass matrix and finding the propagators.
 [21] arXiv:2406.13751 [pdf, html, other]

Title: Candidate de Sitter VacuaComments: 64 pages + appendices, 22 figures. 30 candidate de Sitter vacua. Ancillary data: this https URLSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
We construct compactifications of type IIB string theory that yield, at leading order in the $\alpha^\prime$ and $g_s$ expansions, de Sitter vacua of the form envisioned by Kachru, Kallosh, Linde, and Trivedi. We specify explicit CalabiYau orientifolds and quantized fluxes for which we derive the fourdimensional effective supergravity theories, incorporating the exact flux superpotential, the nonperturbative superpotential from Euclidean D3branes, and the Kähler potential at tree level in the string loop expansion but to all orders in $\alpha'$. Each example includes a KlebanovStrassler throat region containing a single antiD3brane, whose supersymmetrybreaking energy, computed at leading order in $\alpha'$, causes an uplift to a metastable de Sitter vacuum in which all moduli are stabilized. Finding vacua that demonstrably survive subleading corrections, and in which the quantization conditions are completely understood, is an important open problem for which this work has prepared the foundations.
 [22] arXiv:2406.13784 [pdf, html, other]

Title: The interplay of WGC and WCCC via charged scalar field fluxes in the RPST frameworkComments: 17 pages, 1 tableSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc)
In this paper, we investigate the weak cosmic censorship conjecture (WCCC) for the ReissnerNordstrom (RN) AdS black hole in a restricted phase space thermodynamics (RPST). Also here, we consider energy flux and equivalence massenergy principle and examine the weak gravity conjecture (WGC) and the weak cosmic censorship conjecture. The incoming and outgoing energy flux leads to changes in the black hole. In that case, by applying the first law, we examined whether the second law of thermodynamics is valid. And also one can say that, in the case where absorption and superradiance are in the saturated to an equilibrium. Also, by using the thermodynamics of black holes in the restricted phase space, we show that if the black hole is in an extreme or close to an extreme state with radiation and particle absorption, the weak cosmic censorship conjecture is established. In addition, with the help of equivalence mass and energy principle and secondorder approximation, in the near extremity, we find that when the black hole radiates and its central charge is greater than the scaled electric charge, the superradiance particles obey the weak gravity conjecture, and this causes the black hole to move further away from its extreme state. But when the particles that obey the weak gravity conjecture are attracted to the black hole when the black hole is very small. Then, in this case, we note that the black hole becomes closer to its extreme state.
 [23] arXiv:2406.13792 [pdf, html, other]

Title: Holographic real and imaginary potentials of heavy quarkonium in YangMillsdilaton black holesComments: 17 pages, 6 figuresJournalref: Phys. Lett. B 855 (2024) 138791Subjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
Within the methods of the real and the imaginary potential for investigating the melting of a heavy quarkonium in the AdS/CFT correspondence, we study the effects of the dynamical exponent, the hyperscaling violation parameter, and the YangMills charge on both methods in the hyperscaling violated YangMillsdilaton metric background. In the real part of the potential, we find out that the dynamical exponent, the hyperscaling violation parameter, and the YangMills charge increase the real potential and decrease the dissociation length, and hence the quarkonium dissociates easily. In the imaginary part of the potential, we show that the dynamical exponent, the hyperscaling violation parameter, and the YangMills charge tend to decrease the thermal width, thus strengthening the suppression of the heavy quarkonium, and making the melting process easier. Also, we show that the obtained results from the real and imaginary potential methods are compatible and complementary.
 [24] arXiv:2406.13949 [pdf, html, other]

Title: Entanglement island and Page curve of Hawking radiation in rotating Kerr black holesSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc)
We initiate the study of the information paradox of rotating Kerr black holes by employing the recently proposed island rule. It is known that the scalar field theory near the Kerr black hole horizon can be reduced to the 2dimensional effective theory. Working within the framework of the 2dimensional effective theory and assuming the small angular momentum limit, we demonstrate that the entanglement entropy of Hawking radiation from the nonextremal Kerr black hole follows the Page curve and saturates the BekensteinHawking entropy at late times. In addition, we also discuss the effect of the black hole rotation on the Page time and scrambling time. For the extreme Kerr black hole, the entanglement entropy at late times also approximates the BekensteinHawking entropy of the extreme Kerr black hole. These results imply that entanglement islands can provide a semiclassical resolution of the information paradox for rotating Kerr black holes.
 [25] arXiv:2406.14019 [pdf, html, other]

Title: Symmetries in the Hamiltonian formulation of string theoryComments: 19 pagesSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
In the context of the Hamiltonian formulation of string theory, a widely acknowledged issue is the inability of the firstclass constraints to accurately reproduce the Lagrangian symmetry transformations. We take a critical look at the Hamiltonian formulation of the Polyakov string and demonstrate, using Castellani's procedure, that diffeomorphism and Weyl symmetries naturally emerge without using any fielddependent reparametrization, thus preserving the theoretical consistency between Hamiltonian and Lagrangian descriptions. Additionally, we will review the standard Hamiltonian analysis of the symmetries in terms of lapse and shift functions and show that the reason behind this failure is not due to the noncanonicity of the variables but rather because this parametrization fails to preserve general covariance.
 [26] arXiv:2406.14146 [pdf, html, other]

Title: On the renormalization of MetricAffine Gravity theoriesComments: 30 pages + appendix + Wolfram Mathematica file with resultsSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
We discuss the renormalization group in the context of gravitational theories with independent metric and affine connection. Considering a class of theories with both propagating torsion and nonmetricity, we perform an explicit computation of oneloop divergences, starting from a simple yet phenomenologically viable modification of the YangMillslike action. Similarly to what happens in Poincaré gauge theory, in addition to the action, quadratic in curvature, torsion, and nonmetricity, many more terms are generated. We correct a known result for the beta function of the YangMills term and show that considerations previously presented in the literature are incomplete.
 [27] arXiv:2406.14148 [pdf, html, other]

Title: Massive spin threehalf field in a constant electromagnetic backgroundComments: 25 pagesSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
Massive higherspin fields are difficult to introduce consistent interactions, including electromagnetic and gravitational ones which are clearly exhibited by (nonelementary) higherspin particles in nature. We construct an action that describes consistent interactions of massive spin threehalf field with a constant electromagnetic background. We also work out the relation to the chiral approach.
 [28] arXiv:2406.14203 [pdf, html, other]

Title: Continuous QuiversEvgeny Sobko (LIMS, London)Comments: 5 pages, 2 figuresSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
We consider halfBPS Wilson loops in $\mathcal{N} = 2$ long circular quiver gauge theories at large$N$ with continuous limit shape of 't Hooft couplings. In the limit of an infinite number of nodes $L$, the solution to the localisation matrix model is given by Wigner semicircles for any profile of couplings. Higherorder corrections in $1/L$ can be calculated iteratively. Combining large $L$ with a strong coupling regime we identify a double scaling limit that describes dynamics along a fifth dimension which emerges dynamically from the quiver diagram. We solve the resulting integrodifferential equation exactly for a certain range of parameters.
 [29] arXiv:2406.14320 [pdf, html, other]

Title: Anyon condensation in mixedstate topological orderComments: 52 pages, 14 figuresSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); Strongly Correlated Electrons (condmat.strel); Mathematical Physics (mathph); Category Theory (math.CT); Quantum Physics (quantph)
We discuss anyon condensation in mixedstate topological order. The phases were recently conjectured to be classified by premodular fusion categories. Just like anyon condensation in purestate topological order, a bootstrap analysis shows condensable anyons are given by connected étale algebras. We explain how to perform generic anyon condensation including noninvertible anyons and successive condensations. Interestingly, some condensations lead to purestate topological orders. We clarify when this happens. We also compute topological invariants of equivalence classes.
 [30] arXiv:2406.14357 [pdf, html, other]

Title: Black holes with electroweak hairComments: 5+8 pages, 5+1 figuresSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc); High Energy Physics  Phenomenology (hepph)
We construct static and axially symmetric magnetically charged hairy black holes in the gravitycoupled WeinbergSalam theory. Large black holes merge with the ReissnerNordström (RN) family, while the small ones are extremal and support a hair in the form of a ringshaped electroweak condensate carrying superconducting Wcurrents and up to $22\%$ of the total magnetic charge. The extremal solutions are asymptotically RN with a mass {\it below} the total charge, $M<Q$, due to the negative Zeeman energy of the condensate interacting with the black hole magnetic field. Therefore, they cannot decay into RN black holes. As their charge increases, they show a phase transition when the horizon symmetry changes from spherical to oblate. At this point they have the mass typical for planetary size black holes of which $\approx 11\%$ are stored in the hair. Being obtained within a welltested theory, our solutions are expected to be physically relevant.
 [31] arXiv:2406.14419 [pdf, html, other]

Title: Spin Statistics and Surgeries of Topological Solitons in QCD Matter in Magnetic FieldComments: 38 pages, 8 figuresSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); High Energy Physics  Phenomenology (hepph)
The ground state of QCD with two flavors (up and down quarks) at finite baryon density in sufficiently strong magnetic field is in a form of either a chiral soliton lattice(CSL), an array of solitons stacked along the magnetic field, or a domainwall Skyrmion phase in which Skyrmions are spontaneously created on top of the CSL In the latter, one 2D (baby) Skyrmion in the chiral soliton corresponds to two 3D Skyrmions (baryons) in the bulk. In this paper, we study spin statistics of topological solitons by using the following two methods: the conventional Witten's method by embedding the pion fields of two flavors into those of three flavors with the WessZuminoWitten (WZW) term, and a more direct method by using the twoflavor WZW term written in terms of a spin structure. We find that a chiral soliton of finite quantized size called a pancake soliton and a hole on a chiral soliton are fermions or bosons depending on odd or even quantizations of their surface areas, respectively, and a domainwall Skyrmion is a boson. We also propose surgeries of topological solitons: a domainwall Skyrmion (boson) can be cut into a pancake soliton (fermion) and a hole (fermion), and a chiral soliton without Skyrmions can be cut into a pancake soliton (fermion) and a hole (fermion).
 [32] arXiv:2406.14450 [pdf, html, other]

Title: Hydrodynamics of Relativistic Superheated BubblesComments: 18 pages, 8 figures, 1 appendixSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astroph.HE); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc)
Relativistic, charged, superheated bubbles may play an important role in neutron star mergers if firstorder phase transitions are present in the phase diagram of Quantum Chromodynamics. We describe the properties of these bubbles in the hydrodynamic regime. We find two qualitative differences with supercooled bubbles. First, the pressure inside an expanding superheated bubble can be higher or lower than the pressure outside the bubble. Second, some fluid flows develop metastable regions behind the bubble wall. We consider the possible role of a conserved charge akin to baryon number. The fluid flow profiles are unaffected by this charge if the speed of sound is constant in each phase, but they are modified for more general equations of state. We compute the efficiency factor relevant for gravitational wave production.
 [33] arXiv:2406.14490 [pdf, html, other]

Title: One point functions in large $N$ vector models at finite chemical potentialComments: 60 pages, 7 figuresSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); Statistical Mechanics (condmat.statmech); Strongly Correlated Electrons (condmat.strel)
We evaluate the thermal one point function of higher spin currents in the critical model of $U(N)$ complex scalars interacting with a quartic potential and the $U(N)$ GrossNeveu model of Dirac fermions at large $N$ and strong coupling using the Euclidean inversion formula. These models are considered in odd space time dimensions $d$ and held at finite temperature and finite real chemical potential $\mu$ measured in units of the temperature. We show that these one point functions simplify both at large spin and large $d$. At large spin, the one point functions behave as though the theory is free, the chemical potential appears through a simple prefactor which is either $\cosh\mu$ or $\sinh\mu$ depending on whether the spin is even or odd. At large $d$, but at finite spin and chemical potential, the 1point functions are suppressed exponentially in $d$ compared to the free theory. We study a fixed point of the critical GrossNeveu model in $d=3$ with 1point functions exhibiting a branch cut in the chemical potential plane. The critical exponent for the free energy or the pressure at the branch point is $3/2$ which coincides with the mean field exponent of the LeeYang edge singularity for repulsive core interactions.
New submissions for Friday, 21 June 2024 (showing 33 of 33 entries )
 [34] arXiv:2406.12855 (crosslist from math.GM) [pdf, other]

Title: Moving frame and spin field representations of submanifolds in flat spaceComments: 20 pages, 1 figureSubjects: General Mathematics (math.GM); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); Mathematical Physics (mathph)
We introduce a spin field approach, that is compatible with the Cartan moving frame method, to describe the submanifold in a flat space. In fact, we consider a kind of spin field $\psi$, that satisfies a Killing spin field equation (analogous to a Killing spinor equation) written in terms of the Clifford algebra, and we use the spin field to locally rotate the orthonormal basis $\{\hat{e}_\mathtt{I}\}$. Then, the deformed orthonormal frame $\{\tilde{\psi}\hat{e}_\mathtt{I}\psi\}$ can be seen as the moving frame of a submanifold. We find some solutions to the Killing spin field equation and demonstrate an explicit example. Using the product of the spin fields, one can easily generate a new immersion submanifold, and this technique should be useful for studies in geometry and physics. Through the spin field, we find a linear relation between the connection and the extrinsic curvature of the submanifold. We propose a conjecture that any solution of the Killing spin field equation can be locally written as the product of the solutions we find.
 [35] arXiv:2406.12916 (crosslist from cs.LG) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Opening the Black Box: predicting the trainability of deep neural networks with reconstruction entropyComments: 22 pages, 5 figures, 1 tableSubjects: Machine Learning (cs.LG); Disordered Systems and Neural Networks (condmat.disnn); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); Machine Learning (stat.ML)
An important challenge in machine learning is to predict the initial conditions under which a given neural network will be trainable. We present a method for predicting the trainable regime in parameter space for deep feedforward neural networks, based on reconstructing the input from subsequent activation layers via a cascade of singlelayer auxiliary networks. For both MNIST and CIFAR10, we show that a single epoch of training of the shallow cascade networks is sufficient to predict the trainability of the deep feedforward network, thereby providing a significant reduction in overall training time. We achieve this by computing the relative entropy between reconstructed images and the original inputs, and show that this probe of information loss is sensitive to the phase behaviour of the network. Our results provide a concrete link between the flow of information and the trainability of deep neural networks, further elucidating the role of criticality in these systems.
 [36] arXiv:2406.12956 (crosslist from hepph) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Cold Darkogenesis: Dark Matter and Baryon Asymmetry in Light of the PTA SignalComments: 5 + 4 pages, 3 figuresSubjects: High Energy Physics  Phenomenology (hepph); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astroph.CO); High Energy Physics  Experiment (hepex); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
We build upon the intriguing possibility that the recently reported nanoHz gravitational wave signal by Pulsar Timing Array (PTA) experiments is sourced by a strong firstorder phase transition from a nearly conformal dark sector. The phase transition has to be strongly supercooled to explain the signal amplitude, while the critical temperature has to be in the $\cal{O}$(GeV) range, as dictated by the peak frequency of the gravitational wave spectrum. However, the resulting strong supercooling exponentially dilutes away any preexisting baryon asymmetry and dark matter, calling for a new paradigm of their productions. We then develop a mechanism of cold darkogenesis that generates a dark asymmetry during the phase transition from the textured dark $SU(2)_{\rm D}$ Higgs field. This dark asymmetry is transferred to the visible sector via neutron portal interactions, resulting in the observed baryon asymmetry. Furthermore, the mechanism naturally leads to the correct abundance of asymmetric dark matter, with selfinteraction of the scale that is of the right order to solve the diversity problem in galactic rotation curves. Collider searches for monojets and dark matter direct detection experiments can dictate the viability of the model.
 [37] arXiv:2406.12962 (crosslist from condmat.strel) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Gauging modulated symmetries: KramersWannier dualities and noninvertible reflectionsComments: 67 pagesSubjects: Strongly Correlated Electrons (condmat.strel); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); Mathematical Physics (mathph); Quantum Physics (quantph)
Modulated symmetries are internal symmetries that act in a nonuniform, spatially modulated way and are generalizations of, for example, dipole symmetries. In this paper, we systematically study the gauging of finite Abelian modulated symmetries in ${1+1}$ dimensions. Working with local Hamiltonians of spin chains, we explore the dual symmetries after gauging and their potential new spatial modulations. We establish sufficient conditions for the existence of an isomorphism between the modulated symmetries and their dual, naturally implemented by lattice reflections. For instance, in systems of prime qudits, translation invariance guarantees this isomorphism. For nonprime qudits, we show using techniques from ring theory that this isomorphism can also exist, although it is not guaranteed by lattice translation symmetry alone. From this isomorphism, we identify new KramersWannier dualities and construct related noninvertible reflection symmetry operators using sequential quantum circuits. Notably, this noninvertible reflection symmetry exists even when the system lacks ordinary reflection symmetry. Throughout the paper, we illustrate these results using various simple toy models.
 [38] arXiv:2406.12967 (crosslist from condmat.strel) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Fluctuation Spectrum of Critical Fermi SurfacesComments: 52 pages, 7 figures; Part of the manuscript first appeared in arXiv:2311.03455 and arXiv:2311.03458. The current manuscript combines and expands the two previous manuscripts in a selfcontained style with additional resultsSubjects: Strongly Correlated Electrons (condmat.strel); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
We investigate the Gaussian fluctuation spectrum of the large $N$ YukawaSYK model, which describes a Fermi surface coupled to an Isingnematic quantum critical point in (2+1) spacetime dimensions with translation symmetry. The large $N$ saddle point is described by the MigdalEliashberg equations, and the Gaussian fluctuation around it is generated by the BetheSalpeter kernel $K_\text{BS}$. Based on the Ward identities, we propose an inner product on the space of two point functions, which reveals a large number of soft modes of $K_\text{BS}$. These soft modes parameterize deformation of the Fermi surface, and their fluctuation eigenvalues describe their decay rates. We analytically compute these eigenvalues for a circular Fermi surface, and we discover the oddparity modes to be parametrically longerlived than the evenparity modes, due to the kinematic constraint of fermions scattering on a convex FS. The sign of the eigenvalues signals an instability of the Isingnematic quantum critical point at zero temperature for a convex Fermi surface. At finite temperature, the system can be stabilized by thermal fluctuations of the critical boson. We derive an effective action that describes the softmode dynamics, and it leads to a linearized Boltzmann equation, where the real part of the softmode eigenvalues can be interpreted as the collision rates. The structure of the effective action is similar to the theory of linear bosonization of a Fermi surface. Analyzing the Boltzmann equation, we obtain a conventional hydrodynamic transport regime and a tomographic transport regime. In both regimes, the conductance of the system in finite geometry can be a sharp indicator for the softmode dynamics and nonFermi liquid physics.
 [39] arXiv:2406.12978 (crosslist from quantph) [pdf, other]

Title: Tensor networks for noninvertible symmetries in 3+1d and beyondComments: 72+1 pages, 11 (numbered) figures, 2 tablesSubjects: Quantum Physics (quantph); Strongly Correlated Electrons (condmat.strel); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
Tensor networks provide a natural language for noninvertible symmetries in general Hamiltonian lattice models. We use ZXdiagrams, which are tensor network presentations of quantum circuits, to define a noninvertible operator implementing the Wegner duality in 3+1d lattice $\mathbb{Z}_2$ gauge theory. The noninvertible algebra, which mixes with lattice translations, can be efficiently computed using ZXcalculus. We further deform the $\mathbb{Z}_2$ gauge theory while preserving the duality and find a model with nine exactly degenerate ground states on a torus, consistent with the LiebSchultzMattistype constraint imposed by the symmetry. Finally, we provide a ZXdiagram presentation of the noninvertible duality operators (including noninvertible parity/reflection symmetries) of generalized Ising models based on graphs, encompassing the 1+1d Ising model, the threespin Ising model, the AshkinTeller model, and the 2+1d plaquette Ising model. The mixing (or lack thereof) with spatial symmetries is understood from a unifying perspective based on graph theory.
 [40] arXiv:2406.13068 (crosslist from grqc) [pdf, html, other]

Title: A new energy inequality in AdSComments: 13 pages, 3 figsSubjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
We study time symmetric initial data for asymptotically AdS spacetimes with conformal boundary containing a spatial circle. Such $d$dimensional initial data sets can contain $(d2)$dimensional minimal surfaces if the circle is contractible. We compute the minimum energy of a large class of such initial data as a function of the area $A$ of this minimal surface. The statement $E \ge E_{min}(A)$ is analogous to the Penrose inequality which bounds the energy from below by a function of the area of a $(d1)$dimensional minimal surface.
 [41] arXiv:2406.13082 (crosslist from grqc) [pdf, other]

Title: The HanburyBrown and Twiss effect in inflationary cosmological perturbationsSubjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astroph.CO); High Energy Physics  Phenomenology (hepph); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
The simplest model of inflation is based around an inflaton field that starts in a coherent false vacuum state with a positive cosmological constant, rolls slowly to the true vacuum and relaxes to it via reheating. We examine whether the scale of the transition from coherence to chaoticity can be examined via the HanburyBrown and Twiss (HBT) effect, in parallel with analogous problems of heavy ion physics (the ``pion laser'' and the thermalizing glasma).
We develop an ansatz which contains a definition of ''chaoticity'' which parallels that of the usual setups where HBT is used.
However, we also discuss the differences between the inflationary setup and more mainstream uses of HBT and conclude that these are more significant than the similarities, making the use of the developed methodology uncertain.  [42] arXiv:2406.13120 (crosslist from math.RT) [pdf, html, other]

Title: A different approach to positive traces on generalized qWeyl algebrasComments: 6 pages, slightly different version to appear in the Proceedings of the 15th International Workshop "Lie Theory and Its Applications in Physics" (LT15), 1925 June 2023, Varna, BulgariaSubjects: Representation Theory (math.RT); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); Mathematical Physics (mathph)
Positive twisted traces are mathematical objects that could be useful in computing certain parameters of superconformal field theories. The case when $\mathcal{A}$ is a $q$Weyl algebra and $\rho$ is a certain antilinear automorphism of $\mathcal{A}$ was considered in arXiv:2105.12652. Here we consider more general choices of $\rho$. In particular, we show that for $\rho$ corresponding to a standard Schur index of a fourdimensional gauge theory a positive trace is unique.
 [43] arXiv:2406.13135 (crosslist from hepph) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Pair creation in electric fieldsComments: 10 pages, 6 figures, to appear in the Proceedings of "45th Symposium on Nuclear Physics", Cocoyoc, Mexico, Jan 811, 2024Subjects: High Energy Physics  Phenomenology (hepph); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
SauterSchwinger pair creation in electromagnetic fields is a fundamental prediction of QED and one of the motivations for the present efforts in constructing superstrong lasers. I will give a historical review of the subject, and then focus on two recent developments. The first one is the worldline instanton formalism, a sophisticated version of the WKB approximation that makes it possible to calculate the pair creation rate for complicated field configurations. The second one is an adaptation of the DiracHeisenbergWigner formalism suitable for a detailed study of the formation of real particles in time and space.
 [44] arXiv:2406.13224 (crosslist from grqc) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Possibility of the Traversable Wormholes in the Galactic Halos within $4D$ EinsteinGaussBonnet GravityComments: Annalen der Physik published versionJournalref: Annalen der Physik, 536 (2024) 2400114Subjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
Recently, there has been significant interest regarding the regularization of a $D\rightarrow 4$ limit of EinsteinGaussBonnet (EGB) gravity. This regularization involves rescaling the GaussBonnet (GB) coupling constant as $\alpha/(D4)$, which bypasses Lovelock's theorem and avoids Ostrogradsky instability. A noteworthy observation is that the maximally or spherically symmetric solutions for all the regularized gravities coincide in the $4D$ scenario. Considering this, we investigate the wormhole solutions in the galactic halos based on three different choices of dark matter (DM) profiles, such as Universal Rotation Curve, NavarroFrenkWhite, and Scalar Field Dark Matter with the framework of $4D$ EGB gravity. Also, the Karmarkar condition was used to find the exact solutions for the shape functions under different nonconstant redshift functions. We discussed the energy conditions for each DM profile and noticed the influence of GB coefficient $\alpha$ in violating energy conditions, especially null energy conditions. Further, some physical features of wormholes, viz. complexity factor, active gravitational mass, total gravitational energy, and embedding diagrams, have been explored.
 [45] arXiv:2406.13270 (crosslist from grqc) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Novel topological phenomena of timelike circular orbits for charged test particlesComments: 30 pages, 29 figuresSubjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
The topological approach has recently been successfully employed to investigate timelike circular orbits for massive neutral test particles. The observed vanishing topological number implies that these timelike circular orbits occur in pairs. However, the behavior of charged test particles in this regard remains unexplored. To address this issue, our study focuses on examining the influence of particle charge on the topology of timelike circular orbits within a spherically symmetrical black hole spacetime holding a nonvanishing radial electric field. We consider four distinct cases based on the charges of the particle and the black hole: unlike strong charge, unlike weak charge, like weak charge, and like strong charge. For each case, we calculate the corresponding topological number. Our results reveal that when the charge is large enough, the topological number takes a value of 1 instead of 0, which differs from the neutral particle scenario. Consequently, in cases of small charges, the timelike circular orbits appear in pairs, whereas in cases of larger charges, an additional unstable timelike circular orbit emerges. These findings shed light on the influence of the particle charge on the topological properties and number of timelike circular orbits.
 [46] arXiv:2406.13416 (crosslist from grqc) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Influence of thermal bath on PancharatnamBerry phase in an accelerated frameComments: Latex, 7 pages, 2 figuresSubjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); Quantum Physics (quantph)
A uniformly accelerated atom captures PancharatnamBerry phase in its quantum state and the phase factor depends on the vacuum fluctuation of the background quantum fields. We observe that the thermal nature of the fields further affects the induced phase. Interestingly the induced phase captures the exchange symmetry between the Unruh and real thermal baths. This observation further supports the claim that the Unruh thermal bath mimics a real thermal bath. Moreover for certain values of system parameters and at high temperature, the phase is enhanced compared to zero temperature situation. However the required temperature to observe the phase experimentally is so high that the detection of Unruh effect through this is not possible within the current technology.
 [47] arXiv:2406.13503 (crosslist from mathph) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Integrable $\mathbb{Z}_2^2$graded Extensions of the Liouville and SinhGordon TheoriesComments: 25 pagesSubjects: Mathematical Physics (mathph); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); Exactly Solvable and Integrable Systems (nlin.SI)
In this paper we present a general framework to construct integrable $\mathbb{Z}_2^2$graded extensions of classical, twodimensional Toda and conformal affine Toda theories. The scheme is applied to define the extended Liouville and SinhGordon models; they are based on $\mathbb{Z}_2^2$graded color Lie algebras and their fields satisfy a parabosonic statististics. The mathematical tools here introduced are the $\mathbb{Z}_2^2$graded covariant extensions of the Lax pair formalism and of the Polyakov's soldering procedure. The $\mathbb{Z}_2^2$graded SinhGordon model is derived from an affine $\mathbb{Z}_2^2$graded color Lie algebra, mimicking a procedure originally introduced by BabelonBonora to derive the ordinary SinhGordon model. The color Lie algebras under considerations are: the $6$generator $\mathbb{Z}_2^2$graded $sl_2$, the $\mathbb{Z}_2^2$graded affine ${\widehat{sl_2}}$ algebra with two central extensions, the $\mathbb{Z}_2^2$graded Virasoro algebra obtained from a Hamiltonian reduction.
 [48] arXiv:2406.13521 (crosslist from grqc) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Gravitationalwave background in bouncing models from semiclassical, quantum and string gravityIdo BenDayan, Gianluca Calcagni, Maurizio Gasperini, Anupam Mazumdar, Eliseo Pavone, Udaykrishna Thattarampilly, Amresh VermaComments: 1+33 pages, 4 figuresSubjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astroph.CO); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
We study the primordial spectra and the gravitationalwave background (GWB) of three models of semiclassical, quantum or string gravity where the big bang is replaced by a bounce and the tensor spectrum is bluetilted: ekpyrotic universe with fastrolling Galileons, stringgas cosmology with AtickWitten conjecture and prebigbang cosmology. We find that the ekpyrotic scenario does not produce a GWB amplitude detectable by present or thirdgeneration interferometers, while the stringgas model is ruled out for producing too large a signal. In contrast, the GWB of the prebigbang scenario falls within the sensitivity window of both LISA and Einstein Telescope, where it takes the form of a single or a broken power law depending on the choice of parameters. The latter will be tightly constrained by both detectors.
 [49] arXiv:2406.13753 (crosslist from hepph) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Nonglobal logarithms up to four loops at finiteN$_c$ for V/H+jet processes at hadron collidersComments: 26 pages, 11 figures, 1 tableSubjects: High Energy Physics  Phenomenology (hepph); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
We extend our previous work [1] on calculating nonglobal logarithms in $e^+ e^$ annihilation to Higgs/vector boson production in association with a single hard jet at hadron colliders. We analytically compute nonglobal coefficients in the jet mass distribution up to four loops using the antik$_t$ jet algorithm. Our calculations are performed in the eikonal approximation, assuming strong energy ordering for the emitted gluons, thus capturing only the leading logarithms of the distribution. We compare our analytical results with the allorders largeN$_c$ numerical solution. In general, the gross features of the nonglobal logarithm distribution observed in the $e^+ e^$ case remain valid for the V/H+jet processes.
 [50] arXiv:2406.13758 (crosslist from grqc) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Plane symmetric gravitational fields in (D+1)dimensional General RelativityComments: 12 pagesSubjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
We consider plane symmetric gravitational fields within the framework of General Relativity in (D+1)dimensional spacetime. Two classes of vacuum solutions correspond to higherdimensional generalizations of the Rindler and Taub spacetimes. The general solutions are presented for a positive and negative cosmological constant as the only source of the gravity. Matching conditions on a planar boundary between two regions with distinct plane symmetric metric tensors are discussed. An example is considered with Rindler and Taub geometries in neighboring halfspaces. As another example, we discuss a finite thickness cosmological constant slab embedded into the Minkowski, Rindler and Taub spacetimes. The corresponding surface energymomentum tensor is found required for matching the exterior and interior geometries.
 [51] arXiv:2406.13845 (crosslist from grqc) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Effects of quantum corrections to Lorentzian vacuum transitions in the presence of gravityComments: 36 pages, 4 figuresSubjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
We present a study of the vacuum transition probabilities taking into account quantum corrections. We first introduce a general method that expand previous works employing the Lorentzian formalism of the WheelerDe Witt equation by considering higher order terms in the semiclassical expansion. The method presented is applicable in principle to any model in the superspace and up to any desired order in the quantum correction terms. Then, we apply this method to obtain analytical solutions for the probabilities up to second quantum corrections for homogeneous isotropic and anisotropic universes. We use the FriedmannLemaitreRobertsonWalker with positive and zero curvature for the isotropic case and the Bianchi III and KantwowskiSachs metrics for the anisotropic case. Interpreting the results as distribution probabilities of creating universes by vacuum decay with a given size, we found that the general behaviour is that considering up to the second quantum correction leads to an avoidance of the initial singularity. However, we show that this result can only be achieved for the isotropic universe. Furthermore, we also study the effect of anisotropy on the transition probabilities.
 [52] arXiv:2406.13887 (crosslist from astroph.CO) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Dark Matter and General Relativistic Instability in Supermassive StarsComments: 11 pages, 2 figuresSubjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astroph.CO); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
We calculate the extent to which collisionless dark matter impacts the stability of supermassive stars $(M\gtrsim10^4\,M_\odot)$. We find that, depending on the star's mass, a dark matter content in excess of ${\sim}1\%$ by mass throughout the entire star can raise the critical central density for the onset general relativistic instability, in some cases by orders of magnitude. We consider implications of this effect for the onset of nuclear burning and significant neutrino energy losses.
 [53] arXiv:2406.13965 (crosslist from condmat.quantgas) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Quantum analog to flapping of flags: interface instability for coflow binary superfluidsComments: 19 pages, 7 figuresSubjects: Quantum Gases (condmat.quantgas); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
We study the interface dynamics in immiscible binary superfluids using its holographic description, which naturally consists of an inviscid superfluid component and a viscous normal fluid component. We give the first theoretical realization of interface instability for two superfluid components moving with identical velocity, providing a quantum analog to the flapping of flags that is common in daily life. This behavior is in sharp contrast to the one from GrossPitaevskii equation for which no such coflow instability develops in an isolated uniform system because of Galilean invariance. The real time evolution triggered by the dynamical instability exhibits intricate nonlinear patterns leading to quantum turbulence reminiscent of the quantum KelvinHelmholtz instability. Moreover, we show that such interface dynamics is essentially different from the Landau instability for which the frictionless flow becomes thermodynamically unstable above a critical superfluid velocity. Our study uncovers the rich interface dynamics of quantum fluids and the emergence of complex flow phenomena.
 [54] arXiv:2406.14152 (crosslist from astroph.CO) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Clocking the End of Cosmic InflationComments: 24 pages, 2 figures, uses jcappubSubjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astroph.CO); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc); High Energy Physics  Phenomenology (hepph); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
Making observable predictions for cosmic inflation requires determining when the wavenumbers of astrophysical interest today exited the Hubble radius during the inflationary epoch. These instants are commonly evaluated using the slowroll approximation and measured in efolds $\Delta N=NN_\mathrm{end}$, in reference to the efold $N_\mathrm{end}$ at which inflation ended. Slow roll being necessarily violated towards the end of inflation, both the approximated trajectory and $N_\mathrm{end}$ are determined at, typically, one or two efolds precision. Up to now, such an uncertainty has been innocuous, but this will no longer be the case with the forthcoming cosmological measurements. In this work, we introduce a new and simple analytical method, on top of the usual slowroll approximation, that reduces uncertainties on $\Delta N$ to less than a tenth of an efold.
 [55] arXiv:2406.14157 (crosslist from grqc) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Exact solutions for differentially rotating galaxies in general relativityComments: 5 pages, 2 figuresSubjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astroph.CO); Astrophysics of Galaxies (astroph.GA); High Energy Physics  Phenomenology (hepph); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
A class of stationary axisymmetric solutions of Einstein's equations for isolated differentially rotating dust sources is presented. The lowenergy asymptotic regime is extracted, requiring a selfconsistent coupling of quasilocal energy and angular momentum. The Raychaudhuri equation reduces to a balance equation, with two important limits. These limits can be interpreted empirically for rotationally supported configurations such as galaxies. The net energy including quasilocal kinetic contributions vanishes on the inner vortex surface, and the outer rotosurface. These new geometrical objects potentially shed light on virialization. Whether or not abundant collisionless dark matter exists, the new solutions suggest that the phenomenology of galactic rotation curves be fundamentally reconsidered, for consistency with general relativity.
 [56] arXiv:2406.14225 (crosslist from quantph) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Comment on "Covariant quantum field theory of tachyons"Comments: 5 pages, 1 figure; comment to arXiv:2308.00450, which was accepted by PRDSubjects: Quantum Physics (quantph); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc); High Energy Physics  Phenomenology (hepph); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
Recently, Paczos et al. (2308.00450) proposed a covariant quantum field theory for free and interacting tachyon fields. We show that the proposed Feynman propagator is not Lorentz invariant, proper asymptotic (in/out) tachyon states do not exist, and the proposed Smatrix describing interactions of tachyons and subluminal matter is illdefined. Since tachyons behave as bosons, interacting tachyons may also selfinteract, e.g., any interaction with ordinary matter generates such terms. As a result, the physical vacuum, instead of being at the origin of the potential, may correspond to the proper minimum of the tachyon potential, or such state does not exist at all. Our analysis indicates that quantum tachyon field does not describe a physical onshell particle with negative mass squared.
 [57] arXiv:2406.14345 (crosslist from grqc) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Revisiting the static spherically symmetric solutions of gravity with a conformally coupled scalarComments: 11 pagesSubjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
We revisit the static spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's General Relativity with a conformally coupled scalar field in arbitrary dimensions. Using a four rank tensor introduced earlier we recast the field equations in a manifestly symmetric form to elucidate a somewhat lessknown feature of dual mapping between solutions. We also show that there is a twoparameter subfamily of solutions which enjoy a duality symmetry and in four dimensions both the BBMB black hole and the BarceloVisser wormhole belong to this subfamily. Along the way, we rederive the full threeparameter family of solutions by direct integration of the field equations and a natural choice of ansatz which arguably has several advantages over other previously known methods.
 [58] arXiv:2406.14518 (crosslist from math.AG) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Algebraic geometry of bubbling Kahler metricsComments: 44 pagesSubjects: Algebraic Geometry (math.AG); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); Differential Geometry (math.DG)
We give an algebrogeometric or nonarchimedean framework to study bubbling phenomena of Kahler metrics with Euclidean volume growth, after [DS17, Sun23, dBS23]. In particular, for any degenerating family to log terminal singularity, we algebraically construct a finite sequence of birational modifications of the family with milder degenerations, and compare with analytic bubbling constructions in loc.cit. We also provide approaches in terms of coordinates and valuations. Our discussion partially depends on the general framework of stability theory in our [Od24b] (arXiv:2406.02489) after [HL14, AHLH23].
 [59] arXiv:2406.14547 (crosslist from math.SG) [pdf, html, other]

Title: A Mathematical Definition of Path Integrals on Symplectic ManifoldsComments: 20 pagesSubjects: Symplectic Geometry (math.SG); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); Mathematical Physics (mathph); Quantum Algebra (math.QA)
We give a mathematical definition of some path integrals, emphasizing those relevant to the quantization of symplectic manifolds (and more generally, Poisson manifolds) $\unicode{x2013}$ in particular, the coherent state path integral. We show that Kähler manifolds provide many computable examples.
Cross submissions for Friday, 21 June 2024 (showing 26 of 26 entries )
 [60] arXiv:2109.13278 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: M2branes wrapped on a topological diskComments: v3: 28 pages, 4 figures, published version with published addendum. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:2108.01105Journalref: JHEP 2209 (2022) 048Subjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
Employing the method applied to M5branes recently by Bah, Bonetti, Minasian and Nardoni, we study M2branes on a disk with nontrivial holonomies at the boundary. In fourdimensional $U(1)^4$gauged $\mathcal{N}=2$ supergravity, we find supersymmetric $AdS_2$ solutions from M2branes wrapped on a topological disk in CalabiYau two, three and fourfolds. We uplift the solutions to elevendimensional supergravity. For the solutions from topological disk in CalabiYau fourfolds, the BekensteinHawking entropy is finite and welldefined. On the other hand, from the topological disk in CalabiYau two and threefolds, we could not find solutions with finite BekensteinHawking entropy.
 [61] arXiv:2306.07766 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Consistency of eightdimensional supergravities: Anomalies, Lattices and CountertermsComments: 37 pages. Comments and suggestions are welcomedSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); Mathematical Physics (mathph)
We reexamine the question of quantum consistency of supergravities in eight dimensions. Theories with 16 supercharges suffer from the anomalies under the action of its discrete modular groups. In minimally supersymmetric theory coupled to YangMills multiples of rank $l$ with the moduli space given by $\text{SO}(2,l)/ (\text{U}(1) \times \text{SO}(l))$, the existence of a counterterm together with the requirement that its poles and zeros correspond to the gauge symmetry enhancement imposes nontrivial constraints on the lattice. The counterterms needed for anomaly cancellation for all cases, that are believed to lead to consistent theories of quantum gravity ($l = 2,10,18$), are discussed.
 [62] arXiv:2309.01810 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Infrared structures of scattering on selfdual radiative backgroundsComments: 36+10 pages, no figures. v2: published versionJournalref: JHEP 2406: 076, 2024Subjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
The scattering of gluons and gravitons in trivial backgrounds is endowed with many surprising infrared features which have interesting conformal interpretations on the twodimensional celestial sphere. However, the fate of these structures in more general asymptotically flat backgrounds is far from clear. In this paper, we consider holomorphic infrared structures in the presence of nonperturbative, selfdual background gauge and gravitational fields which are determined by freely specified radiative data. We make use of explicit formulae for treelevel gluon and graviton scattering in these selfdual radiative backgrounds, as well as chiral twistor sigma model descriptions of the classical dynamics. Remarkably, we find that the leading holomorphic part of treelevel collinear splitting functions  or celestial OPEs  and infinitedimensional chiral soft algebras are undeformed by the background. We also compute allorder holomorphic celestial OPEs in the MHV sectors of gauge theory and gravity.
 [63] arXiv:2310.07213 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Species Scale in Diverse DimensionsComments: 60 pages, 12 figures; v2: references added, typos corrected, published versionSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
In a quantum theory of gravity, the species scale $\Lambda_s$ can be defined as the scale at which corrections to the Einstein action become important or alternatively as codifying the "number of light degrees of freedom", due to the fact that $\Lambda_s^{1}$ is the smallest size black hole described by the EFT involving only the Einstein term. In this paper, we check the validity of this picture in diverse dimensions and with different amounts of supersymmetry and verify the expected behavior of the species scale at the boundary of the moduli space. This also leads to the evaluation of the species scale in the interior of the moduli space as well as to the computation of the diameter of the moduli space. We also find evidence that the species scale satisfies the bound $\big{\nabla \Lambda_s \over \Lambda_s} \big^2\leq {1\over d2}$ all over moduli space including the interior.
 [64] arXiv:2310.11260 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Effective Theory Approach for Axion WormholesComments: 25 pages, 6 figures, v2: To appear in JHEP, added discussions on the cutoff scale and an appendix on the potential contributionSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); High Energy Physics  Phenomenology (hepph)
We employ the effective field theory approach to analyze the characteristics of Euclidean wormholes within axion theories. Using this approach, we obtain nonperturbative instantons in various complex scalar models with and without a nonminimal coupling to gravity, as well as models featuring the $R^2$ term for a range of coupling values. This yields a series of analytical expressions for the axion wormhole action, shedding light on the model parameters and field dependencies of contributions in both the ultraviolet and infrared domains. Consequently, modeldependent local operators that disrupt axion shift symmetries are generated at lower energy levels. This, in turn, provides crucial insights into the gravitational influences on the axion quality problem.
 [65] arXiv:2310.13044 (replaced) [pdf, other]

Title: Global Symmetries, Code Ensembles, and Sums Over GeometriesComments: Typos corrected; references added; improved presentation of the main correspondenceSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
We consider abelian topological quantum field theories (TQFTs) in 3d and show that gaugings of invertible global symmetries naturally give rise to additive codes. These codes emerge as nonanomalous subgroups of the 1form symmetry group, parameterizing the fusion rules of condensable TQFT anyons. The boundary theories dual to TQFTs with the anyons condensed, i.e. with the corresponding symmetry subgroup gauged, are "code CFTs." This observation bridges together, in the holographic sense, results on 1form symmetries of 3d TQFTs with developments connecting codes to 2d CFTs. Building on this relationship, we proceed to consider the ensemble of maximal gaugings (topological boundary conditions) in a general, not necessarily abelian 3d TQFT, and propose that the resulting ensemble of boundary CFTs has a holographic description as a gravitational theory  the bulk TQFT summed over topologies.
 [66] arXiv:2310.14877 (replaced) [pdf, other]

Title: A nonunitary bulkboundary correspondence: Nonunitary Haagerup RCFTs from Sfold SCFTsComments: 41 pagesSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
We introduce a novel class of twodimensional nonunitary rational conformal field theories (RCFTs) whose modular data are identical to the generalized HaagerupIzumi modular data. Via the bulkboundary correspondence, they are related to the threedimensional nonunitary Haagerup topological field theories, recently constructed by a topological twisting of threedimensional ${\cal N}=4$ rankzero superconformal field theories (SCFTs), called Sfold SCFTs. We propose that, up to the overall factors, the halfindices of the rankzero SCFTs give the explicit Nahm representation of four conformal characters of the RCFTs including the vacuum character. Using the theory of BantayGannon, we can successfully complete them into the full admissible conformal characters of the RCFTs.
 [67] arXiv:2312.12266 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: A String Theory for Two Dimensional YangMills Theory IComments: 52 pages + appendices, 9 figures. A few comments and references added. JHEP published versionSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
Two dimensional gauge theories with charged matter fields are useful toy models for studying gauge theory dynamics, and in particular for studying the duality of large $N$ gauge theories to perturbative string theories. A useful starting point for such studies is the pure YangMills theory, which is exactly solvable. Its $1/N$ expansion was interpreted as a string theory by Gross and Taylor 30 years ago, but they did not provide a worldsheet action for this string theory, and such an action is useful for coupling it to matter fields. The chiral sector of the YangMills theory can be written as a sum over holomorphic maps and has useful worldsheet descriptions, but the full theory includes more general extremalarea maps; a formal worldsheet action including all these maps in a "topological rigid string theory" was written by Hořava many years ago, but various subtleties arise when trying to use it for computations. In this paper we suggest a Polyakovlike generalization of Hořava's worldsheet action which is welldefined, and we show how it reproduces the free limit of the YangMills theory, both by formal arguments and by explicitly computing its partition function in several cases. In the future we plan to generalize this string theory to the finitecoupling gauge theory, and to analyze it with boundaries, corresponding either to Wilson loops or to dynamical matter fields in the fundamental representation.
 [68] arXiv:2312.17393 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Quintessence and the Higgs Portal in the Carroll limitComments: Several references were added. To appear in PLBSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astroph.HE); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc)
A cosmological model based on two scalar fields is proposed. The first of these, $\varphi$, has mass $\mu$, while the second, $\chi$, is massless. The pair are coupled through a ``Higgs portal''. First, we show how the model reproduces the Friedmann equations if the square of the mass of the $\varphi$ field is proportional to the cosmological constant and $\chi$ represents the quintessence field. Quantum corrections break the conformal symmetry, and the $\chi$ field acquires a mass equal to $\sqrt{3g\Lambda}$. The perturbative approach with $g\ll 1$ is consistent with the bounds for $m_\chi$; moreover, by using dimensional analysis, we estimate $m_\chi \ll H_0\approx 10^{33}$ eV, which is in accordance with what is expected in the quintessence scenario. The acceleration of the universe is proportional to $\chi^2$, we conclude that for very long times, the solution of the equation of motion approaches $\langle \chi\rangle \sim {m_\chi}/{\sqrt\lambda}$ and the universe continues to accelerate, with a constant acceleration.
 [69] arXiv:2401.09908 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Algorithm for differential equations for Feynman integrals in general dimensionsComments: 47 pages. v2: Clarifications and comments added. Version to appear in Letters in Mathematical Physics. Results for differential operators are on the repository : this https URLSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); High Energy Physics  Phenomenology (hepph); Mathematical Physics (mathph)
We present an algorithm for determining the minimal order differential equations associated to a given Feynman integral in dimensional or analytic regularisation. The algorithm is an extension of the GriffithsDwork pole reduction adapted to the case of twisted differential forms. In dimensional regularisation, we demonstrate the applicability of this algorithm by explicitly providing the inhomogeneous differential equations for the multiloop twopoint sunset integrals: up to 20 loops for the equal mass case, the generic mass case at two and threeloop orders. Additionally, we derive the differential operators for various infrareddivergent twoloop graphs. In the analytic regularisation case, we apply our algorithm for deriving a system of partial differential equations for regulated Witten diagrams, which arise in the evaluation of cosmological correlators of conformally coupled $\phi^4$ theory in fourdimensional de Sitter space.
 [70] arXiv:2404.03503 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Wilson Loops and Random MatricesComments: 23 pages, 12 figuresSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); High Energy Physics  Lattice (heplat); High Energy Physics  Phenomenology (hepph)
Linear confinement with Casimir scaling of the string tension in confining gauge theories is a consequence of a certain property of the Polyakov loop related to random matrices. This mechanism does not depend on the details of the theories (neither the gauge group nor dimensions) and explains approximate Casimir scaling below stringbreaking length. In this paper, we study 3d SU(2) pure YangMills theory numerically and find the same randommatrix behavior for rectangular Wilson loops. We conjecture that this is a universal feature of strongly coupled confining gauge theories.
 [71] arXiv:2404.03651 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Multipartite edge modes and tensor networksComments: 49 pages, 78 pages with appendices, 19 figuresSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); Strongly Correlated Electrons (condmat.strel); Quantum Physics (quantph)
Holographic tensor networks model AdS/CFT, but so far they have been limited by involving only systems that are very different from gravity. Unfortunately, we cannot straightforwardly discretize gravity to incorporate it, because that would break diffeomorphism invariance. In this note, we explore a resolution. In low dimensions gravity can be written as a topological gauge theory, which can be discretized without breaking gaugeinvariance. However, new problems arise. Foremost, we now need a qualitatively new kind of "area operator," which has no relation to the number of links along the cut and is instead topological. Secondly, the inclusion of matter becomes trickier. We successfully construct a tensor network both including matter and with this new type of area. Notably, while this area is still related to the entanglement in "edge mode" degrees of freedom, the edge modes are no longer bipartite entangled pairs. Instead they are highly multipartite. Along the way, we calculate the entropy of novel subalgebras in a particular topological gauge theory. We also show that the multipartite nature of the edge modes gives rise to noncommuting area operators, a property that other tensor networks do not exhibit.
 [72] arXiv:2404.04758 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Kerrlike metric in 4D Double Field TheoryComments: 27 pagesSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
Double Field Theory suggests that people can view the whole massless NSNS sector as the gravitational unity. The $O(D,D)$ covariance and the doubled diffeomorphisms determine precisely how the Standard Model as well as a relativistic point particle should couple to the NSNS sector. The theory also refines the notion of singularity. In [1], the authors derive analytically the most general, spherically symmetric, asymptotically flat, static vacuum solution to $D = 4$ Double Field Theory. The solution contains three free parameters and consequently generalizes the Schwarzschild geometry. In this paper, we generalize the metric in [1] to obtain the 'Kerrlike' metric in $D = 4$ double field theory (DFT) in the Einstein frame and string frame. Then we apply 'covariant phase space' approach to study the thermodynamic properties of the metric we have obtained. We explore the first law of black hole thermodynamics and Hawking radiation for this metric carefully. As a special case, the 'Schwarzschildlike' metric in $4D$ double field theory in [1] can be recovered.
 [73] arXiv:2404.18403 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: The defect btheorem under bulk RG flowsComments: 23 pages, 8 figuresSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
It is known that for RG flows confined to a twodimensional defect, where the bulk maintains its conformal nature, the coefficient of the Euler density in the defect's Weyl anomaly (termed b) cannot increase as the flow progresses from the ultraviolet to the infrared, a principle known as the btheorem. In this paper, we investigate whether this theorem still holds when the bulk, instead of being critical, also undergoes an RG flow. To address this question, we examine two distinct and perturbatively tractable examples. Our analysis reveals that a straightforward extension of the btheorem to these cases of RG flows fails.
 [74] arXiv:2405.08945 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: The secret structure of the gravitational vacuumComments: 17 pages, 5 figures, Essay awarded second prize in Gravity Research Foundation Essay Competition 2024, Comments added on the behavior of an observer inside the holeSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc)
We argue that the vacuum of quantum gravity must contain a hierarchical structure of correlations spanning all length scales. These correlated domains (called `vecros') correspond to virtual fluctuations of black hole microstates. Larger fluctuations are suppressed by their larger action, but this suppression is offset by a correspondingly larger phase space of possible configurations. We give an explicit lattice model of these vecro fluctuations, noting how their distribution changes as the gravitational pull of a star becomes stronger. At the threshold of formation of a closed trapped surface, these virtual fluctuations transition into onshell black hole microstates (fuzzballs). Fuzzballs radiate from their surface like normal bodies, resolving the information paradox. We also argue that any model without vecrotype extended vacuum correlations cannot resolve the paradox.
 [75] arXiv:2405.14306 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: On the convergence of the polarization tensor in spacetime of three dimensionsComments: 12 pages, 2 figures; accepted for publication in Phys. Rev. D; several typos are correctedSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
In this paper, we consider the convergence properties of the polarization tensor of graphene obtained in the framework of thermal quantum field theory in threedimensional spacetime. During the last years, this problem attracted much attention in connection with calculation of the Casimir force in graphene systems and investigation of the electrical conductivity and reflectance of graphene sheets. There are contradictory statements in the literature, especially on whether this tensor has an ultraviolet divergence in three dimensions. Here, we analyze this problem using the well known method of dimensional regularization. It is shown that the thermal correction to the polarization tensor is finite at any $D$, whereas its zerotemperature part behaves differently for $D=3$ and 4. For $D=3$, it is obtained by the analytic continuation with no subtracting infinitely large terms. As to the spacetime of $D=4$, the finite result for the polarization tensor at zero temperature is found after subtracting the pole term. Our results are in agreement with previous calculations of the polarization tensor at both zero and nonzero temperature. This opens possibility for a wider application of the quantum field theoretical approach in investigations of graphene and other twodimensional novel materials.
 [76] arXiv:2405.15594 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Eikonal amplitudes on the celestial sphereComments: 38 pages + appendix and references, 6 figures. v2: references addedSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc)
Celestial scattering amplitudes for massless particles are Mellin transforms of momentumspace scattering amplitudes with respect to the energies of the external particles, and behave as conformal correlators on the celestial sphere. However, there are few explicit cases of welldefined celestial amplitudes, particularly for gravitational theories: the mixing between low and highenergy scales induced by the Mellin transform generically yields divergent integrals. In this paper, we argue that the most natural object to consider is the gravitational amplitude dressed by an oscillating phase arising from semiclassical effects known as eikonal exponentiation. This leads to gravitational celestial amplitudes which are analytic, apart from a set of poles at integer negative conformal dimensions, whose degree and residues we characterize. We also study the large conformal dimension limits, and provide an asymptotic series representation for these celestial eikonal amplitudes. Our investigation covers two different frameworks, related by eikonal exponentiation: $2\to2$ scattering of scalars in flat spacetime and $1\to1$ scattering of a probe scalar particle in a curved, stationary spacetime. These provide data which any putative celestial dual for Minkowski, shockwave or black hole spacetimes must reproduce. We also derive dispersion and monodromy relations for these celestial amplitudes and discuss Carrollian eikonalprobe amplitudes in curved spacetimes.
 [77] arXiv:2405.19421 (replaced) [pdf, other]

Title: String Field Theory: A ReviewComments: 172 pages, 22 figures. Expanded version of a review for "Handbook of Quantum Gravity", eds. C. Bambi, L. Modesto and I.Shapiro. New version with very minor changes and a few extra referencesSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
As of today there exist consistent, gaugeinvariant string field theories describing all string theories: bosonic open and closed strings, open superstrings, heterotic strings and type II strings. The construction of these theories require algebraic ingredients, such as $A_\infty$ and $L_\infty$ homotopy algebras, geometric ingredients, relevant to the building of moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces and the distribution of picture changing operators, and fieldtheoretic ingredients, involving twodimensional CFT's and BCFT's and BatalinVilkovisky quantization. Applications of string field theory include the description of nonperturbative phenomena such as tachyon condensation and classical solutions, and the resolution of a number of ambiguities that bedevil the worldsheet formulation of perturbative string theory. It also allows, given a proper definition of contours of integration for momenta, for a proof of unitarity and a clear understanding of the ultraviolet finiteness of the theory. In this article we review these developments.
 [78] arXiv:2406.02676 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Discrete torsion in gauging noninvertible symmetriesComments: Updated acknowledgmentsSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
In this paper we explain that there exist two complementary generalizations of discrete torsion for noninvertible symmetries in 2d QFT's. Both characterizations are counted by $H^2(G,U(1))$ when one specializes to ordinary finite groups $G$. However, the counting is different for more general fusion categories. Furthermore, only one generalizes the picture of discrete torsion as differences in choices of gauge actions on $B$fields. We also explain how this same generalization of discrete torsion gives rise to physicallysensible twists on gaugeable algebras and fiber functors.
 [79] arXiv:2406.04234 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Hidden zeros = secret ultraviolet scaling, and a new path to uniquenessComments: Extra step added to proofSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
We investigate the hidden amplitude zeros discovered by ArkaniHamed et al, which describe a nontrivial vanishing of scattering amplitudes on special external kinematics. We prove the conjecture that amplitude zeros uniquely fix Tr$(\phi^3)$, by first showing that any amplitude can be divided into special subsets, which independently satisfy the zero condition. We further prove that this condition is in fact equivalent to a novel enhancement under BrittoCachazoFengWitten shifts of the same subsets. More generally, for one particular zero type, this equivalence can be extended to arbitrary rational functions built from planar variables (such as the nonlinear sigma model). In the case of YangMills theory, we conjecture the zeros, combined with colorkinematic duality, uniquely fix the $\lfloor n/2\rfloor$ different tensor structures of $n$point gluon amplitudes. Our approach suggests a straightforward avenue for understanding previous similar uniqueness results, in which unitarity appears as an emergent property, and naively independent physical principles contain identical (amplitude) information.
 [80] arXiv:2406.04310 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Neural Networks Assisted MetropolisHastings for Bayesian Estimation of Critical Exponent on Elliptic Black Hole Solution in 4D Using Quantum Perturbation TheoryComments: V2: 3 extra figures for loss functions on Gaussian proposal distributions are added. Section 4 is modified. 37 pages, 14 figuresSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc); Mathematical Physics (mathph); Quantum Physics (quantph)
It is wellknown that the critical gravitational collapse produces continuous selfsimilar solutions characterized by the Choptuik critical exponent, $\gamma$. We examine the solutions in the domains of the linear perturbation equations, considering the numerical measurement errors. Specifically, we study quantum perturbation theory for the fourdimensional Einsteinaxiondilaton system of the elliptic class of $\text{SL}(2,\mathbb{R})$ transformations. We develop a novel artificial neural networkassisted MetropolisHastings algorithm based on quantum perturbation theory to find the distribution of the critical exponent in a Bayesian framework. Unlike existing methods, this new probabilistic approach identifies the available deterministic solution and explores the range of physically distinguishable critical exponents that may arise due to numerical measurement errors.
 [81] arXiv:2406.04539 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: The KLT kernel in twistor spaceComments: 53 pages + appendices and references, 13 figures. v2: references addedSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc)
The double copy relationship between YangMills theory and general relativity can be stated in terms of a field theory KawaiLewellenTye (KLT) momentum kernel, which maps two colourordered gluon amplitudes to a graviton amplitude at treelevel. These amplitudes can also be written in compact, helicitygraded representations on twistor space which include the famous ParkeTaylor and Hodges formulae in the maximal helicity violating sector. However, a double copy formulation of these helicitygraded formulae has proved elusive. In this paper, we use graphtheoretic methods to obtain an explicit double copy representation of the treelevel, helicity graded Smatrix of general relativity in terms of a KLTlike integral kernel in twistor space. This integral kernel glues together two colourordered integrands for treelevel gluon scattering on twistor space to produce treelevel graviton amplitudes, and admits a chiral splitting into positive and negative helicity degrees of freedom. Furthermore, the kernel can be inverted to obtain a new formula for the treelevel Smatrix of biadjoint scalar theory, which we verify using recursion relations. We also derive extensions of this integral kernel to graviton scattering in antide Sitter space and selfdual radiative spacetimes, commenting on their potential double copy interpretations.
 [82] arXiv:2406.06690 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Boundary operators in asymptotically flat spacetimeComments: 13 pages, LatexSubjects: High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
In arXiv:2311.03443 the authors have proposed an interesting framework for studying holography in flat spacetime. In this note we explore the relationship between their proposal and the Celestial Holography. In particular, we find that in both the massive and in the massless cases the asymptotic boundary limit of the bulk timeordered Green's function $G$ is related to the Celestial amplitudes by an integral transformation. In the massless case the integral transformation reduces to the well known \textit{shadow transformation} of the celestial amplitude. Now the relation between the asymptotic limit of $G$ and the celestial amplitudes suggests that in asymptotically flat spacetime if the scattering states are described by the conformal primary basis (and it's analytic continuation in dimension $\Delta$) then the boundary operators holographically dual to the (massless) bulk fields are given by the \underline{shadow transformation} of the conformal primary operators living on the celestial sphere. In other words, conformal primary operators themselves are not boundary operators but their shadows are. This is consistent with the fact that in celestial holography the boundary stress tensor is given by the shadow transformation of the subleading soft graviton.
 [83] arXiv:1905.00435 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Anomaly indicators for topological orders with $U(1)$ and timereversal symmetryComments: v2: 21 pages, 2 figures, minor changes from the first version. Version published in PRB. v3: corrected a minor error in the proof that $η_{\text{ETI}} = 1$ for Abelian topological ordersJournalref: Phys. Rev. B 100, 165129 (2019)Subjects: Strongly Correlated Electrons (condmat.strel); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
We study anomalies in timereversal ($\mathbb{Z}_2^T$) and $U(1)$ symmetric topological orders. In this context, an anomalous topological order is one that cannot be realized in a strictly $(2+1)$D system but can be realized on the surface of a $(3+1)$D symmetryprotected topological (SPT) phase. To detect these anomalies we propose several anomaly indicators  functions that take as input the algebraic data of a symmetric topological order and that output a number indicating the presence or absence of an anomaly. We construct such indicators for both structures of the full symmetry group, i.e. $U(1)\rtimes\mathbb{Z}_2^T$ and $U(1)\times\mathbb{Z}_2^T$, and for both bosonic and fermionic topological orders. In all cases we conjecture that our indicators are complete in the sense that the anomalies they detect are in onetoone correspondence with the known classification of $(3+1)$D SPT phases with the same symmetry. We also show that one of our indicators for bosonic topological orders has a mathematical interpretation as a partition function for the bulk $(3+1)$D SPT phase on a particular manifold and in the presence of a particular background gauge field for the $U(1)$ symmetry.
 [84] arXiv:2206.08327 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: The BOSS bispectrum analysis at one loop from the Effective Field Theory of LargeScale StructureComments: JCAP version, 23+18 pages, 6 figures, 5 tablesSubjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astroph.CO); High Energy Physics  Phenomenology (hepph); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
We analyze the BOSS power spectrum monopole and quadrupole, and the bispectrum monopole and quadrupole data, using the predictions from the Effective Field Theory of LargeScale Structure (EFTofLSS). Specifically, we use the one loop prediction for the power spectrum and the bispectrum monopole, and the tree level for the bispectrum quadrupole. After validating our pipeline against numerical simulations as well as checking for several internal consistencies, we apply it to the observational data. We find that analyzing the bispectrum monopole to higher wavenumbers thanks to the oneloop prediction, as well as the addition of the treelevel quadrupole, significantly reduces the error bars with respect to our original analysis of the power spectrum at one loop and bispectrum monopole at tree level. After fixing the spectral tilt to Planck preferred value and using a Big Bang Nucleosynthesis prior, we measure $\sigma_8=0.794\pm 0.037$, $h = 0.692\pm 0.011$, and $\Omega_m = 0.311\pm 0.010$ to about $4.7\%$, $1.6\%$, and $3.2\%$, at $68\%$ CL, respectively. This represents an error bar reduction with respect to the power spectrumonly analysis of about $30\%$, $18\%$, and $13\%$ respectively. Remarkably, the results are compatible with the ones obtained with a powerspectrumonly analysis, showing the power of the EFTofLSS in simultaneously predicting several observables. We find no tension with Planck.
 [85] arXiv:2209.02741 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Probing ultralight scalar, vector and tensor dark matter with pulsar timing arraysComments: 6 pages, 3 figures, accepted by PLBSubjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astroph.CO); High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astroph.HE); High Energy Physics  Phenomenology (hepph); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) are sensitive to oscillations in the gravitational potential along the lineofsight due to ultralight particle pressure. We calculate the probing power of PTAs for ultralight bosons across all frequencies, from those larger than the inverse observation time to those smaller than the inverse distance to the pulsar. We show that since the signal amplitude grows comparably to the degradation in PTA sensitivity at frequencies smaller than inverse observation time, the discovery potential can be extended towards lower masses by over three decades, maintaining high precision. We demonstrate that, in the mass range $10^{26} 10^{23}$ eV, existing 15year PTA data can robustly detect or rule out an ultralight component down to $O(1  10)\%$ of the total dark matter. Nondetection, together with other bounds in different mass ranges, will imply that ultralight scalar/axion can comprise at most $110\%$ of dark matter in the $10^{30}\!\!10^{17}$ eV range. With 30 years of observation, current PTAs can extend the reach down to $0.11 \%$, while nextgeneration PTAs such as SKA can attain the $0.010.1\%$ precision. We generalize the analysis and derive predictions for ultralight spin1 vector (i.e. dark photon) and spin2 tensor dark components.
 [86] arXiv:2209.14309 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Symmetry energy in holographic QCDComments: LaTeX: 29 pages, 5 figures; V2: extended version; V3: comments, references and appendices C through E addedJournalref: SciPost Phys. 16, 156 (2024)Subjects: High Energy Physics  Phenomenology (hepph); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); Nuclear Theory (nuclth)
We study the symmetry energy (SE), an important quantity in nuclear physics, in the WittenSakaiSugimoto model and in a much simpler hardwall model of holographic QCD. The SE is the energy contribution to the nucleus due to having an unequal number of neutrons and protons. Using a homogeneous Ansatz representing smeared instantons and quantizing their isospin, we extract the SE and the proton fraction assuming charge neutrality and betaequilibrium, using quantization of the isospin zeromode. We also show the equivalence between our method adapted from solitons and the usual way of the isospin controlled by a chemical potential at the holographic boundary. We find that the SE can be well described in the WSS model if we allow for a larger 't Hooft coupling and lower KaluzaKlein scale than is normally used in phenomenological fits.
 [87] arXiv:2301.05679 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Effective speed of cosmological perturbationsComments: The first version of this paper was submitted to JCAP on February 7th 2023, and the first report was received on January 14th 2024. This is a revised version based on the first referee reportJournalref: Phys.Dark Univ. 45 (2024) 101549Subjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astroph.CO); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
We derive an effective equation and action for comoving curvature perturbations and gravitational waves (GWs) in terms of a time, momentum and polarization dependent effective speed, encoding the effects of the interaction among metric perturbations or with other fields, such as dark energy and dark matter. The structure of the effective actions and equations is the same for scalar and tensor perturbations, and the effective actions can be written as the KleinGordon action in terms of an appropriately defined effective metric, dependent on the effective speed. The effective action reproduces, and generalizes to higher order in perturbations, results obtained for GWs in the effective field theory of inflation and dark energy, or for curvature perturbations in systems with multiple scalar fields, encoding in the effective speed the effects of both entropy and anisotropy. The effective approach can also be applied to the solutions of theories with field equations different from the Einstein equations, by defining an appropriate effective energymomentum tensor. As an example, we show that for a minimally coupled scalar field in general relativity, the effective speeds of curvature perturbations and gravitational waves are frequency and polarization dependent, due to their coupling in the action beyond the quadratic order.
 [88] arXiv:2302.12023 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Third sound detectors in accelerated motionCameron R. D. Bunney, Vitor S. Barroso, Steffen Biermann, August Geelmuyden, Cisco Gooding, Grégoire Ithier, Xavier Rojas, Jorma Louko, Silke WeinfurtnerComments: 18 pages, 3 figures. v2: Figure 2 axis amended, typos corrected. v3: Added section 4 after referee comments, references added, author order updated, typos correctedJournalref: New J. Phys. 26 065001 (2024)Subjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
An accelerated observer moving through empty space sees particles appearing and disappearing, while an observer with a constant velocity does not register any particles. This phenomenon, generally known as the Unruh effect, relies on an initial vacuum state, thereby unifying the experience of all inertial observers. We propose an experiment to probe this observerdependent detector response, using a laser beam in circular motion as a local detector of superfluid helium4 surface modes or third sound waves. To assess experimental feasibility, we develop a theoretical framework to include a nonzero temperature initial state. We find that an accelerationdependent signal persists, independent of the initial temperature. By introducing a signaltonoise measure we show that observing this signal is within experimental reach.
 [89] arXiv:2303.14156 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: NonGaussianity in rapidturn multifield inflationComments: 33 pages, 9 figuresJournalref: JCAP 03 (2024) 014Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astroph.CO); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc); High Energy Physics  Phenomenology (hepph); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
We show that theories of inflation with multiple, rapidly turning fields can generate large amounts of nonGaussianity. We consider a general theory with two fields, an arbitrary fieldspace metric, and a potential that supports sustained, rapidly turning field trajectories. Our analysis accounts for nonzero field crosscorrelation and does not fix the power spectra of curvature and isocurvature perturbations to be equal at horizon crossing. Using the $\delta N$ formalism, we derive a novel, analytical formula for bispectrum generated from multifield mixing on superhorizon scales. Rapidturn inflation can produce a bispectrum with several potentially large contributions that are not necessarily of the local shape. We exemplify the applicability of our formula with a fully explicit model and show that the new contributions indeed can generate a large amplitude of local nonGaussianity, $f_{\rm NL}^{\rm loc}\sim {\cal O}(1)$. These results will be important when interpreting the outcomes of future observations.
 [90] arXiv:2306.13170 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: SPT extension of $Z_2$ quantum Ising model's ferromagnetic phaseSubjects: Strongly Correlated Electrons (condmat.strel); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
This paper focuses on the creation of a model with explicitly defined symmetryprotected topological (SPT) phases on a triangular lattice as an extension of $Z_2$ Ising model's ferromagnetic phase. Unlike in previously known similar works, this model is based on an initially interacting system which is known to describe experimentally realizable physical systems. The Hamiltonian for these edge states contains fourpoint spin interactions between nexttonext nearest neighbors. As an initially interacting A generic technique for creating SPT models is developed, allowing for the construction of translationinvariant edge models.
 [91] arXiv:2311.07557 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Backreaction of axionSU(2) dynamics during inflationComments: 25 pages, 13 figures, 2 tablesJournalref: JCAP04(2024)018Subjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astroph.CO); High Energy Physics  Phenomenology (hepph); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
We consider the effects of backreaction on axionSU(2) dynamics during inflation. We use the linear evolution equations for the gauge field modes and compute their backreaction on the background quantities numerically using the Hartree approximation. We show that the spectator chromonatural inflation attractor is unstable when backreaction becomes important. Working within the constraints of the linear mode equations, we find a new dynamical attractor solution for the axion field and the vacuum expectation value of the gauge field, where the latter has an opposite sign with respect to the chromonatural inflation solution. Our findings are of particular interest to the phenomenology of axionSU(2) inflation, as they demonstrate the instability of the usual trajectory due to large backreaction effects. The viable parameter space of the model becomes significantly altered, provided future nonAbelian lattice simulations confirm the existence of the new dynamical attractor. In addition, the backreaction effects lead to characteristic oscillatory features in the primordial gravitational wave background that are potentially detectable with upcoming gravitational wave detectors.
 [92] arXiv:2311.12259 (replaced) [pdf, other]

Title: Analytical models of supermassive black holes in galaxies surrounded by dark matter halosComments: revtex42, no figures. Version to appear in Phys. Lett. B 855 (2024) 138797Journalref: Phys. Lett. B 855 (2024) 138797Subjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astroph.CO); High Energy Physics  Phenomenology (hepph); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
In this Letter, we present five analytical models in closed forms, each representing a supermassive black hole (SMBH) located at the center of a galaxy surrounded by dark matter (DM) halo. The density profile of the halo vanishes inside twice the Schwarzschild radius of the hole and satisfies the weak, strong, and dominant energy conditions. The spacetime are asymptotically flat, and the difference among the models lies in the slopes of the density profiles in the spike and regions far from the center of the galaxy. Three of them represent cusp models, whereas the other two represent core models. With the wellknown (generalized) NewmanJanis algorithm, rotating SMBHs with DM halos can be easily constructed from these models.
 [93] arXiv:2311.18238 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: The EinsteinHilbert Action for Entropically Dominant Causal SetsComments: Latex 33 pages, 13 figures. Minor corrections, fixing of typos, refining of definitions and some clarifications in the textSubjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
In the path integral formulation of causal set quantum gravity, the quantum partition function is a phaseweighted sum over locally finite partially ordered sets, which are viewed as discrete quantum spacetimes. It is known, however, that the number of ``layered'' sets  a class of causal sets that look nothing like spacetime manifolds  grows superexponentially with the cardinality $n$, giving an entropic contribution that can potentially dominate that of the action. We show here that in any dimension, the discrete EinsteinHilbert action for a typical $K$layered causal set reduces to the simple link action to leading order in $n$. Combined with earlier work, this completes the proof that the layered sets, although entropically dominant, are very strongly suppressed in the path sum of causal set quantum gravity whenever the discreteness scale is greater than or equal to a (mildly dimensiondependent) order one multiple of the Planck scale.
 [94] arXiv:2401.09737 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: The Equivalence Principle as a Noether SymmetryComments: 10 pages, to appear in International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern PhysicsSubjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
The Equivalence Principle is considered in the framework of metricaffine gravity. We show that it naturally emerges as a Noether symmetry starting from a general nonmetric theory. In particular, we discuss the Einstein Equivalence Principle and the Strong Equivalence Principle showing their relations with the nonmetricity tensor. Possible violations are also discussed pointing out the role of nonmetricity in this debate.
 [95] arXiv:2402.05720 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Measurements of the LowAcceleration Gravitational Anomaly from the Normalized Velocity Profile of Gaia Wide Binary Stars and Statistical Testing of Newtonian and Milgromian TheoriesComments: 36 pages, 27 figures, 4 tables, ApJ, revised (Sections 2.1 & 3.4 expanded, Appendix B added)Subjects: Astrophysics of Galaxies (astroph.GA); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astroph.CO); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
Lowacceleration gravitational anomaly is investigated with a new method of exploiting the normalized velocity profile $\tilde{v}\equiv v_p/v_c$ of wide binary stars as a function of the normalized skyprojected radius $s/r_{\rm{M}}$ where $v_p$ is the skyprojected relative velocity between the pair, $v_c$ is the Newtonian circular velocity at the skyprojected separation $s$, and $r_{\rm{M}}$ is the MOND radius. With a Monte Carlo method Gaia observed binaries and their virtual Newtonian counterparts are probabilistically distributed on the $s/r_{\rm{M}}$ versus $\tilde{v}$ plane and a logarithmic velocity ratio parameter $\Gamma$ is measured in the bins of $s/r_{\rm{M}}$. With three samples of binaries covering a broad range in size, data quality, and implied fraction of hierarchical systems including a new sample of 6389 binaries selected with accurate distances and radial velocities, I find a unanimous systematic variation from the Newtonian flat line. With $\Gamma=0$ at $s/r_{\rm{M}}\lesssim 0.15$ or $s\lesssim 1$~kilo astronomical units (kau), I get $\Gamma=0.068\pm 0.015$ (stat) $_{0.015}^{+0.024}$ (syst) for $s/r_{\rm{M}} \gtrsim 0.7$ or $s\gtrsim 5$~kau. The gravitational anomaly (i.e.\ acceleration boost) factor given by $\gamma_g = 10^{2\Gamma}$ is measured to be $\gamma_g = 1.37_{0.09}^{+0.10}$ (stat) $_{0.09}^{+0.16}$ (syst). With a reduced $\chi^2$ test of Newtonian and Milgromian nonrelativistic theories, I find that Newtonian gravity is ruled out at $5.8\sigma$ ($\chi^2_\nu=9.4$) by the new sample (and $9.2\sigma$ by the largest sample used). The Milgromian AQUAL theory is acceptable with $0.5\lesssim \chi^2_\nu\lesssim 3.1$. These results agree well with earlier results with the "accelerationplane analysis" for a variety of samples and the "stacked velocity profile analysis" for a pure binary sample.
 [96] arXiv:2403.01436 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Thermodynamics of the 3dimensional EinsteinMaxwell systemComments: 18pages, 9 figures; v3: typos corrected; v2: the introduction expanded, references and footnotes added, the implication of the result for the thermodynamics of 3dimensional gravity added to the abstract and the conclusionJournalref: JHEP 06 (2024) 134Subjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
Recently, I studied the thermodynamical properties of the EinsteinMaxwell system with a box boundary in 4dimensions [1](JHEP 04 (2024) 083). In this paper, I investigate those in 3dimensions using the zeroloop saddlepoint approximation and focusing only on a simple topology sector as usual. Similar to the 4dimensional case, the system is thermodynamically wellbehaved when $\Lambda<0$ (due to the contribution of the "bag of gold" saddles). However, when $\Lambda=0$, a crucial difference to the 4dimensional case appears, i.e. the 3dimensional system turns out to be thermodynamically unstable, while the 4dimensional one is thermodynamically stable. This may offer two options for how we think about the thermodynamics of 3dimensional gravity with $\Lambda=0$. One is that the zeroloop approximation or restricting the simple topology sector is not sufficient for 3dimensions with $\Lambda=0$. The other is that 3dimensional gravity is really thermodynamically unstable when $\Lambda=0$.
 [97] arXiv:2403.04316 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Testing scaleinvariant inflation against cosmological dataComments: 39 pages, 4 figures, 1 table. v2: additional references added, clarified some aspects of the analysis with regards to reheating and convergence of the results, clarified differences with respect to earlier results. Version accepted for publication in JCAPSubjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astroph.CO); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc); High Energy Physics  Phenomenology (hepph); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
There is solid theoretical and observational motivation behind the idea of scaleinvariance as a fundamental symmetry of Nature. We consider a recently proposed classically scaleinvariant inflationary model, quadratic in curvature and featuring a scalar field nonminimally coupled to gravity. We go beyond earlier analytical studies, which showed that the model predicts inflationary observables in qualitative agreement with data, by solving the full twofield dynamics of the system  this allows us to corroborate previous analytical findings and set robust constraints on the model's parameters using the latest Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data from Planck and BICEP/Keck. We demonstrate that scaleinvariance constrains the twofield trajectory such that the effective dynamics are that of a single field, resulting in vanishing entropy perturbations and protecting the model from destabilization effects. We derive tight upper limits on the nonminimal coupling strength, excluding conformal coupling at high significance. By explicitly sampling over them, we demonstrate an overall insensitivity to initial conditions. We argue that the model \textit{predicts} a minimal level of primordial tensor modes set by $r \gtrsim 0.003$, well within the reach of nextgeneration CMB experiments. These will therefore provide a litmus test of scaleinvariant inflation, and we comment on the possibility of distinguishing the model from Starobinsky and $\alpha$attractor inflation. Overall, we argue that scaleinvariant inflation is in excellent health, and possesses features which make it an interesting benchmark for tests of inflation from future CMB data.
 [98] arXiv:2403.06391 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Towards verifications of Krylov complexityComments: typos and errors are corrected, LaTeX 29pages, no figureJournalref: Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Volume 2024, Issue 6, June 2024, 063A01,Subjects: Quantum Physics (quantph); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); Mathematical Physics (mathph)
Krylov complexity is considered to provide a measure of the growth of operators evolving under Hamiltonian dynamics. The main strategy is the analysis of the structure of Krylov subspace $\mathcal{K}_M(\mathcal{H},\eta)$ spanned by the multiple applications of the Liouville operator $\mathcal{L}$ defined by the commutator in terms of a Hamiltonian $\mathcal{H}$, $\mathcal{L}:=[\mathcal{H},\cdot]$ acting on an operator $\eta$, $\mathcal{K}_M(\mathcal{H},\eta)=\text{span}\{\eta,\mathcal{L}\eta,\ldots,\mathcal{L}^{M1}\eta\}$. For a given inner product $(\cdot,\cdot)$ of the operators, the orthonormal basis $\{\mathcal{O}_n\}$ is constructed from $\mathcal{O}_0=\eta/\sqrt{(\eta,\eta)}$ by Lanczos algorithm. The moments $\mu_m=(\mathcal{O}_0,\mathcal{L}^m\mathcal{O}_0)$ are closely related to the important data $\{b_n\}$ called Lanczos coefficients. I present the exact and explicit expressions of the moments $\{\mu_m\}$ for 16 quantum mechanical systems which are {\em exactly solvable both in the Schrödinger and Heisenberg pictures}. The operator $\eta$ is the variable of the eigenpolynomials. Among them six systems show a clear sign of `noncomplexity' as vanishing higher Lanczos coefficients $b_m=0$, $m\ge3$.
 [99] arXiv:2403.16893 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Explanation of the Generalizations of Uncertainty Principle from Coordinate and Momentum Space PeriodicityComments: Modified with new references, np changes in mathematics; version accepted in EPJ PlusSubjects: Quantum Physics (quantph); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
Generalizations of coordinate $x$momentum $p_x$ Uncertainty Principle, with $\Delta x$ and $\Delta p_x$ dependent terms ($\Delta$ denoting standard deviation), $$\Delta x \Delta p_x\geq i\hbar (1+\alpha\Delta p_x^2 +\beta \Delta x^2)$$ have provided rich dividends as a poor person's approach towards Quantum Gravity, because these can introduce coordinate and momentum scales ($\alpha,\beta$ ) that are appealing conceptually. However, these extensions of Uncertainty Principle are purely phenomenological in nature. Apart from the inherent ambiguity in their explicit structures, the introduction of generalized commutations relations compatible with the the uncertainty relations has some drawbacks.
In the present paper we reveal that these generalized Uncertainty Principles can appear in a perfectly natural way, in canonical quantum mechanics, if one assumes a periodic nature in coordinate or momentum space, as the case may be. We bring in to light quite old, (but not so well known), works by Judge and by Judge and Lewis, that explain in detail how a consistent and generalized Uncertainty Principle is induced in the case of angle $\phi$  angular momentum $L_z$, $$\Delta \phi \Delta L_z \geq i\hbar (1 +\nu \Delta \phi^2)$$ purely from a consistent implementation of {\it{periodic}} nature of the angle variable $\phi $, without changing the $\phi, L_z$ canonical commutation relation. {\it{Structurally this is identical to the well known Extended Uncertainty Principle.}} We directly apply this formalism to formulate the $\Delta x \Delta p_x $ Extended Uncertainty Principle. We identify $\beta$ with an observed length scale relevant in astrophysics context. We speculate about the $\alpha$ extension.  [100] arXiv:2404.03364 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: High energy headon particle collisions near event horizons: classifcation of scenariosComments: 16 pages, substantial revisionSubjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc); High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astroph.HE); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
We consider headon collisions of two particles near the event horizon. Particle 1 is outgoing, particle 2 is ingoing. We elucidate, in which case the energy $E_{c.m.}$ in the center of mass frame can grow unbounded. If the proper time between the horizon and an arbitrary point outside it for particle 1 is finite, we deal with a white hole. If it is infinite, we deal with a black hole. Particles can be either free or experience the action of a finite force. Our results are complementary to those for the standard BSW effect when particles move in the same direction. The results rely on classification of particles developed in our previous work H.V. Ovcharenko, O.B. Zaslavskii, Phys. Rev. D 108, 064029 (2023).
 [101] arXiv:2404.03779 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Primordial black holes and induced gravitational waves in nonsingular matter bouncing cosmologyComments: Accepted at JCAPSubjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc); Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astroph.CO); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
We present a novel modelindependent generic mechanism for primordial black hole formation within the context of nonsingular matter bouncing cosmology. In particular, considering a short duration transition from the matter contracting phase to the Hot Big Bang expanding Universe, we find naturally enhanced curvature perturbations on very small scales which can collapse and form primordial black holes. Interestingly, the primordial black hole masses that we find can lie within the observationally unconstrained asteroidmass window, potentially explaining the totality of dark matter. Remarkably, the enhanced curvature perturbations, collapsing to primordial black holes, can induce as well a stochastic gravitationalwave background, being potentially detectable by future experiments, in particular by SKA, PTAs, LISA and ET, hence serving as a new portal to probe the potential bouncing nature of the initial conditions prevailed in the early Universe.
 [102] arXiv:2404.17334 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: From infinite to infinitesimal: Using the Universe as a dataset to probe Casimir corrections to the vacuum energy from fields inhabiting the dark dimensionComments: figures, tables, and references added; conclusions unchangedSubjects: Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics (astroph.CO); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
Promptly after highresolution experiments harbinger the field of precision cosmology low and highredshift observations abruptly gave rise to a tension in the measurement of the presentday expansion rate of the Universe ($H_0$) and the clustering of matter ($S_8$). The statistically significant discrepancies between the locally measured values of $H_0$ and $S_8$ and the ones inferred from observations of the cosmic microwave background assuming the canonical $\Lambda$ cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model have become a new cornerstone of theoretical physics. $\Lambda_s$CDM is one of the many beyond Standard Model setups that have been proposed to simultaneously resolve the cosmological tensions. This setup relies on an empirical conjecture, which postulates that $\Lambda$ switched sign (from negative to positive) at a critical redshift $z_c \sim 2$. We reexamine a stringy model that can describe the transition in the vacuum energy hypothesized in $\Lambda_s$CDM. The model makes use of the Casimir forces driven by fields inhabiting the incredible bulk of the dark dimension scenario. Unlike the $\Lambda_s$CDM setup the model deviates from $\Lambda$CDM in the early universe due to the existence of relativistic neutrinolike species. Using the Boltzmann solver CLASS in combination with MontePython we confront predictions of the stringy model to experimental data (from the Planck mission, Pantheon+ supernova type Ia, BAO, and KiDS1000). We show that the stringinspired model provides a satisfactory fit to the data and can resolve the cosmological tensions.
 [103] arXiv:2405.09945 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Nearhorizon chaos beyond Einstein gravityComments: 21 pages, 63 figures, 1 tableSubjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (grqc); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); Chaotic Dynamics (nlin.CD)
We investigate chaos in the dynamics of outgoing massless particles near the horizon of static spherically symmetric (SSS) black holes in two wellmotivated models of $f(R)$ gravity. In both these models, we probe chaos in the particle trajectories (under suitable harmonic confinement) in the vicinity of the black hole horizons, for a set of initial conditions. The particle trajectories, associated Poincar$\acute{e}$ sections, and Lyapunov exponents clearly illustrate the role played by the black hole horizon in the growth of chaos. We find that with increasing energy, the particle trajectories explore regions closer to the black hole horizon, with reduced overlap between two initially close trajectories. We demonstrate how this energy range is controlled by the parameters of the modified gravity theory under consideration. The growth of chaos in such a classical setting is known to respect a surface gravity bound arising from universal aspects of particle dynamics close to the black hole horizon [K. Hashimoto and N. Tanahashi, Phys. Rev. D 95, 024007 (2017)], analogous to the quantum MSS bound [J. Maldacena, S.H. Shenker and D. Stanford, JHEP 08 (2016) 106]. Interestingly, both models studied in our work respect the bound, in contrast to some of the other models of $f(R)$ gravity in the existing literature. The work serves as a motivation to use chaos as an additional tool to probe Einstein gravity in the strong gravity regime in the vicinity of black hole horizons.
 [104] arXiv:2406.04182 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Minimal Walgebras with nonadmissible levels and intermediate Lie algebrasComments: 23 pagesSubjects: Mathematical Physics (mathph); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth); Quantum Algebra (math.QA)
In \cite{Kawasetsu:2018irs}, Kawasetsu proved that the simple Walgebra associated with a minimal nilpotent element $W_{k}(\mathfrak{g},f_\theta)$ is rational and $C_2$cofinite for $\mathfrak{g}=D_4,E_6,E_7,E_8$ with nonadmissible level $k=h^\vee/6$. In this paper, we study ${W}_{k}(\mathfrak{g},f_\theta)$ algebra for $\mathfrak{g}=E_6,E_7,E_8$ with nonadmissible level $k=h^\vee/6+1$. We determine all irreducible (Ramond twisted) modules, compute their characters and find coset constructions and Hecke operator interpretations. These Walgebras are closely related to intermediate Lie algebras and intermediate vertex subalgebras.
 [105] arXiv:2406.05454 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Generating Lattice Noninvertible SymmetriesComments: 46 pages, 5 figures, 2 tables; v2 reference addedSubjects: Strongly Correlated Electrons (condmat.strel); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
Lattice noninvertible symmetries have rich fusion structures and play important roles in understanding various exotic topological phases. In this paper, we explore methods to generate new lattice noninvertible transformations/symmetries from a given noninvertible seed transformation/symmetry. The new lattice noninvertible symmetry is constructed by composing the seed transformations on different sites or sandwiching a unitary transformation between the transformations on the same sites. In addition to known noninvertible symmetries with fusion algebras of TambaraYamagami $\mathbb Z_N\times\mathbb Z_N$ type, we obtain a new noninvertible symmetry in models with $\mathbb Z_N$ dipole symmetries. We name the latter the dipole KramersWannier symmetry because it arises from gauging the dipole symmetry. We further study the dipole KramersWannier symmetry in depth, including its topological defect, its anomaly and its associated generalized KennedyTasaki transformation.
 [106] arXiv:2406.07608 (replaced) [pdf, html, other]

Title: Strange metal and superconductor in the twodimensional YukawaSachdevYeKitaev modelChenyuan Li, Davide Valentinis, Aavishkar A. Patel, Haoyu Guo, Jörg Schmalian, Subir Sachdev, Ilya EsterlisComments: 7+18 pages, 5+12 figures; references addedSubjects: Strongly Correlated Electrons (condmat.strel); Superconductivity (condmat.suprcon); High Energy Physics  Theory (hepth)
The twodimensional YukawaSachdevYeKitaev (YSYK) model provides a universal theory of quantum phase transitions in metals in the presence of quenched random spatial fluctuations in the local position of the quantum critical point. It has a Fermi surface coupled to a scalar field by spatially random Yukawa interactions. We present full numerical solutions of a selfconsistent disorder averaged analysis of the YSYK model in both the normal and superconducting states, obtaining electronic spectral functions, frequencydependent conductivity, and superfluid stiffness. Our results reproduce key aspects of observations in the cuprates as analyzed by Michon $et$ $al$. (Nat. Comm. $\bf{14}$, 3033 (2023)). We also find a regime of increasing zero temperature superfluid stiffness with decreasing superconducting critical temperature, as is observed in bulk cuprates.